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An isolated neutral cylinder has an equal
number of positive (red) and negative (blue) charges.
The electric field lines from a test
charge placed near the cylinder will pierce the cylinder.
The electrons (negative, blue, charges)
will move in response to the electric field lines, going towards the test
charge. This leaves an excess of
positive charge on the cylinder’s far side.
As time goes on, more and more electrons
will move towards the test charge. The electrons close to the cylinder, and
the left-behind positive charges on the far side, will begin to cancel the
electric field of the test charge.
Electric field lines from the test charge will begin to terminate on
New field lines will
originate on the far side of the cylinder.
The electrons will stop moving towards
the test charge when enough have moved to completely null the electric field
inside the cylinder. Because the test
charge is overall neutral, far away the field will be identical to the field from
the test charge alone.