Department of Psychology
Midterm Examination 1
Choose the best answer to each of the following 50 questions. Questions are drawn from the text and lectures in roughly equal proportions, with the understanding that there is considerable overlap between the two sources. Usually, only one question is drawn from each major section of each chapter of the required readings; again, sometimes this question also draws on material discussed in class. Read the entire exam through before answering any questions: sometimes one question will help you answer another one.
Most questions can be correctly answered in one of two ways: (1) by fact-retrieval, meaning that you remember the answer from your reading of the text or listening to the lecture; or (2) inference, meaning that you can infer the answer from some general principle discussed in the text or lecture. If you cannot determine the correct answer by either of these methods, try to eliminate at least one option as clearly wrong: this maximizes the likelihood that you will get the correct answer by chance. Also, go with your intuitions: if you have actually done the assigned readings and attended the lectures, your "informed guesses" will likely be right more often than they are wrong.
a. mentalists and other magicians are fakes.
b. action is caused by thoughts, feelings, and desires.*
c. actions cause thoughts, feelings, and desires to occur.
d. nonhuman behaviors are caused by reflexes, but human behaviors are caused by mental states.
a. neuroanatomy and neurophysiology.
d. evolutionary biology.
a. reducing the laws of mind and behavior to the laws of physics.
b. understanding the operation of biochemical structures and processes.
c. understanding the individual's mental states.*
d. describing the sociocultural influences on behavior.
a. the nature of human existence.
b. the relation of individuals to society.*
c. the relations of humans to nonhuman animals.
d. the nature of the physical universe.
a . that blood flow is uniform.
b . that the rate depends on physiological function. *
c . that reading silently and aloud produce the same pattern.
d . none of the above
a . understand the causes of deviant behavior.
b . elucidate general principles of behavior. *
c . produce therapies for mental illness.
d . understand the biological mediators of behavior.
a. anatomy and physiology were irrelevant to psychology.
b. psychology should be concerned only with stimulus inputs and response outputs.
c. the workings of the brain should be studied for their own sake, not for what they can tell us about mind and behavior.
d. psychology is the relations between mind and environment.*
a. neurons correspond to cells.
b. nerves are composed of afferent and efferent neurons.*
c. ganglia and nuclei are composed of nerves.
d. the nervous system is the only way that organs in the body communicate with each other.
a Descartes's belief that the energy from the outside is reflected back by the nervous system to the animal's muscles.*
b . Descartes's belief that animals act as automatons but people are rational and have souls.
c . Descartes's desire to explain coughing and sneezing without reference to the soul.
d Descartes's idea that the pineal gland mediates the relation between the nonmaterial mind and the material brain.
a . under is to over.
b . central is to peripheral.
c . voluntary is to automatic.
d . coming in is to going out.*
a . blocks conduction down the axon*
b . stimulates release of a neurotransmitter
c . blocks receptor sites, thus making neurotransmitters less effective
d . interferes with the recycling of neurotransmitters
a . the limbic system and lower regions are intact, but the cerebral cortex is damaged.
b . the midbrain and lower regions are intact, but the forebrain is damaged.*
c . the medulla and cerebellum are intact, but the midbrain is damaged.
d . the spinal cord is intact, but the medulla and cerebellum are damaged.
a . frontal lobe
b . parietal lobe*
c . occipital lobe
d . temporal lobe
a . point to a picture of a spoon with the left hand.*
b . say the word "spoon."
c . recognize the word "spoon" flashed on a screen off to his left.
d . write the word "spoon."
a. mobilizes the entire body for flight or fight.
b. decreases emotional responses to environmental stresses.*
c. is directed toward the muscles and tendons, rather than the internal organs.
d. increases the sympathetic activation in the face of prolonged exposure to stress.
a. not possible.
b. available to direct conscious awareness.*
c. involuntary but not voluntary.
d. exaggerated, compared to normal.
a. the cerebral cortex is barely visible.*
b. forebrain structures are larger than hindbrain structures.
c. most brain tissue is devoted to cerebral cortex, rather than subcortex.
d. none of the above.
a. deficits in perceiving, but not expressing, emotion.
b. deficits in remembering recent events, but not in remembering new information.
c. deficits in eating and drinking behavior.
d. problems in speech and language.
a. problems in speaking but not understanding language.*
b. problems in reading but not writing.
c. problems in understanding language but not in speaking.
d. problems in writing but not in reading.
a . make some feelings and behaviors more likely than others.*
b . act as positive feedback systems for those feelings and behaviors.
c . set up opponent processes for those feelings and behaviors.
d . are essentially like the input component of Descartes's machines.
a . pituitary
b . hypothalamus*
c . pons
d . medulla
a . decrease in total blood volume*
b . an increase in blood glucose concentration
c . heating of the posterior hypothalamus
d . a and c
a . absorb calories more efficiently than normal.
b . have more neurons than normal in particular areas of their hypothalamus.
c . live in a culture in which food for most people is abundant.
d . burn nutrients less efficiently than normal.
a . homeostatic branch
b . activating branch
c . sympathetic branch*
d . parasympathetic branch
a . The EEG appears like that of deep sleep, but the person is almost awake.
b . Alpha waves intrude into an EEG record that otherwise looks very similar to that during wakefulness.
c . The sleeper's postural muscles are tense, yet she is sound asleep.
d . The EEG resembles that of wakefulness, yet the person is definitely relaxed and asleep. *
a . addiction.
b . tolerance. *
c . withdrawal symptom.
d . learning.
a . pair-bonding.
b . sexually arousing photographs.
c . releasing stimuli. *
d . aggressive behavior.
a . is dead, or too badly injured to continue.
b . communicates submission with an appeasement signal. *
c . intimidates the other with a threat signal.
d . finds himself in his own territory.
a . when the male must show colorful plumage and a complex courtship display
b . when several males in succession mate with one female
c . when the reproductive group is a dominant male and several females
d . when the male cares for the infants *
a . that the mother-infant relationship helps the infant to learn how to acquire later social ties.
b . that animals who are alone are most vulnerable to starvation and predators. *
c . that all infants must be fed.
d . that imprinting can only occur during a "critical period."
a . learned primarily by imitation.
b . learned mostly through social reinforcement.
c . learned during a critical period from 6 months to 3 years.
d . largely built-in responses. *
a . because there is little or no apparent personal gain for the altruist *
b . because altruistic animals are usually less "fit"
c . because altruism is unrelated to genetic inheritance
d . because it is rare and most animals engage in it to about the same degree
a . greatly attenuates the effects of sensitization.
b . allows animals to ignore familiar but harmless stimuli.*
c . paves the way for associative conditioning.
d . keeps neurons active that otherwise might degenerate.
a . the CR does not appear.
b . the CS is not presented.
c . the US is not presented. *
d . the orienting action does not appear.
a. the organism cannot respond if its spinal cord is damaged.
b. the organism cannot respond to new stimuli in a changed environment.*
c. the organism spontaneously produces new behaviors which interferes with the established ones.
d. the are available only to reptiles and birds, not mammals.
a. it will occur even when the conditioned stimulus is not presented.
b. it has been forgotten by the organism and must be relearned.
c. it can recover spontaneously after a period of time.*
d. savings in relearning occurs in the absence of spontaneous recovery.
a. animals must be able to move about the environment in order to learn.
b. the organism can learn only when its physiological needs (e.g., hunger and thirst) have been met.
c. responses which have been punished may extinguish, but they will spontaneously recover.
d. stimulus-response connections must be practiced or they will be lost.*
a. The onset of the conditioned stimulus is simultaneous with the onset of the unconditioned stimulus.
b. The unconditioned stimulus precedes the conditioned stimulus, so that the organism will pay attention.
c. The offset of the conditioned stimulus precedes the onset of the unconditioned stimulus by several seconds.*
d. The unconditioned stimulus is occasionally presented in the absence of the conditioned stimulus.
a. The animal will respond to the tone but not the light.*
b. The animal will respond to the light but not the tone.
c. The animal will show fast acquisition on subsequent trials when the light is paired with shock.
d. The animal will respond to neither the tone nor the light.
a. can occur for unprepared but not prepared stimulus-response associations.
b. occurs only when the learner has direct experience of reinforcement.
c. shows that reinforcement is necessary for learning to occur.
d. none of the above.*
a . on each trial.
b . shortly after the other crucial event.
c . no matter what the subject does.*
d . more often in the early training than later.
a . provide a clear signal for the arrival of reinforcement
b . present the reinforcement immediately after the response is performed
c . initially reinforce approximations to the desired response
d . work with the most difficult component in the response sequence first *
a . a contingency between tone and meat powder. *
b . a contingency between tone and absence of meat powder.
c . a negative contingency.
d . a zero contingency.
a . smooth, continuous performance
b . absence of errors
c . sudden drop in learning curve
d . wide and appropriate transfer *
a . independent variable. *
b . dependent variable.
c . frequency distribution of the deprivation variable.
d . central tendency of the variable.
a . mode.
b . median.
c . average.
d . all of the above*
a . Jill is the worst player on her team.
b . Jill is the best player on her team.
c . Jill is average in ability relative to her teammates. *
d . Jill's ability cannot be determined from the above data.
a . sizable.
b . negligible.
c . positive.
d . negative. *
a . an obtained score, although different in magnitude from the mean, is not significantly different from the mean.
b . all scores must fall within two standard deviations about the mean.
c . an obtained score falls within the normally expected variability about a mean.
d . a and c *