University of California, Berkeley
Department of Psychology

Psychology 1
Fall 1998

Midterm Examination 3

Choose the best answer to each of the following 50 questions. Questions are drawn from the text and lectures in roughly equal proportions, with the understanding that there is considerable overlap between the two sources. Usually, only one question is drawn from each major section of each chapter of the required readings; again, sometimes this question also draws on material discussed in class. Read the entire exam through before answering any questions: sometimes one question will help you answer another one.

Most questions can be correctly answered in one of two ways: (1) by fact-retrieval, meaning that you remember the answer from your reading of the text or listening to the lecture; or (2) inference, meaning that you can infer the answer from some general principle discussed in the text or lecture. If you cannot determine the correct answer by either of these methods, try to eliminate at least one option as clearly wrong: this maximizes the likelihood that you will get the correct answer by chance. Also, go with your intuitions: if you have actually done the assigned readings and attended the lectures, your "informed guesses" will likely be right more often than they are wrong.

1. The finding that two variables are highly correlated allows a scientist to conclude:

a. that the first causes the second.
b. that the second causes the first.
c. that a third factor causes both.
d. nothing about causal relationships. *

2. What proportion of the mentally retarded could learn academic skills up to approximately sixth-grade level by their late teens?

a. 0 percent
b. 10 percent
c. 50 percent
d. 90 percent *

3. Studies comparing identical and fraternal twins indicate that:

a. identical twins have a higher correlation between their IQ test performances. *
b. identical twins are generally better in verbal tasks.
c. identical twins have higher IQ scores.
d. blood tests are usually poor indicators of whether two people are identical twins.

4. The importance of environmental factors in intelligence is indicated by the fact that:

a. the IQs of adopted children do correlate with the IQs of their adoptive mothers.
b. the IQs of fraternal twins are more highly correlated than are the IQ scores of non-twin siblings.
c. the longer a child is in an impoverished environment (e.g., the mountains of Kentucky), the lower his or her IQ is likely to be.
d. all of the above *

5. According to many Cronbach and other authors, even a perfect measure of personality structure would not allow us to predict behavior with absolute accuracy because:

a. personality only provides a disposition; circumstances determine how that disposition will be expressed. *
b. personality structure is unstable and changes from moment to moment.
c. personality traits are only theoretical constructs.
d. the structure will change just because of the testing experience.

6. The criticism that the Rorschach and TAT have little or no "incremental validity" in clinical practice means that the test results:

a. add no significant information to that obtained from case histories. *
b. do not improve from one occasion to another.
c. do not distinguish between major diagnostic groups.
d. are scored differently by different clinicians.

7. Mischel's research on trait consistency revealed that children who cheat on a test in school are most likely to be equally dishonest:

a. at home.
b. on another classroom test. *
c. in athletic competition.
d. all of the above

8. Critics of trait theory argue that:

a. people's personalities seem stable because we repeatedly see them in the same social settings.
b. the belief that there are consistent personality traits is an error of inference.
c. traits are in the eye of the beholder rather than in the personality of the individual beheld.
d. all of the above *

9. Two persons, Jane and Amy, are given two tests of fearfulness, both rated on a 10-point scale in which zero means "no fear" and 10 means "maximum fear." In the first test both are confronted with a vicious dog. Here Jane's fear-rating is 9 and Amy's is 9. In the second test both are about to take a difficult examination. Now Jane's rating is 3 and Amy's rating is 3. These results indicate:

a. an effect of the situation. *
b. an effect of differences in personal traits.
c. an effect of the person-by-situation interaction.
d. no effect.

10. How do behaviorists explain behaviors that linger on even when constant reinforcement is not present?

a. Behavior patterns persist because they have been rewarded some of the time (partial or intermittent reinforcement). *
b. Humans seek and need attention so they persist in these behaviors.
c. These behaviors are innate parts of these people's personalities that cannot be extinguished.
d. They cannot explain this phenomenon.

11. Regarding people's feelings about control:

a. most people prefer to have control over their environment.
b. babies are happier if an overhead mobile turns because of their actions than if it turns on its own.
c. nursing home patients who had more control over their environments were more active and felt better than patients who lacked this control.
d. all of the above *

12. In Freud's psychoanalytic theory, id is to _____ as superego is to _____.

a. immediate satisfaction; internal prohibitions *
b. conscious reaction; immediate satisfaction
c. internal prohibitions; conscious reactions
d. internal prohibitions; immediate satisfaction

13. According to Freud, slips of the tongue and dream interpretations reveal:

a. personality traits.
b. attributions.
c. conscious processes.
d. unconscious processes. *

14. According to Rogers and other humanistic psychologists, two conditions needed for emotionally healthy growth are:

a. self-actualization and unconditional positive regard.
b. warmth and understanding.
c. internal orientation and empathy.
d. empathetic understanding and genuine concern. *

15. Compared with members of individualist societies, members of collectivist societies:

a. are more affected by pressures both from their in-group, and from out-groups.
b. have stronger bonds to their in-group. *
c. tend to define their in-group more broadly, to include a larger number and wider range of individuals.
d. all of the above

16. In an Asch-style social pressure experiment, what is the effect of making the judgments very difficult (for example, 6 1/2 vs. 6 1/4 inches) compared to the effect when the judgments are easy (for example, 6 inches vs. 8 inches)? The real subjects will:

a. yield more, and be more emotionally disturbed.
b. yield more, and be less emotionally disturbed. *
c. yield less, and be more emotionally disturbed.
d. yield less, and be less emotionally disturbed.

17. The central route to persuasion:

a. is more likely to be used if the issue involved is important to us.
b. is more likely to be used if we are not distracted by other concerns.
c. relies primarily on the source and context of the message rather than on its content.
d. a and b only. *

18. In a laboratory study, subjects from Rutgers saw a student (call him "A") make a choice. Some subjects were told that A was also from Rutgers, while other subjects were told that A was from Princeton. The study found that subjects:

a. who thought A was from Rutgers believed that most Rutgers students would make the same choice A had made.
b. who thought A was from Princeton believed that most Princeton students would make the same choice A had.
c. who thought A was from Rutgers drew no inferences about the behavior of other Rutgers students from A's choice.
d. both b and c *

19. Experimental evidence suggests that people tend to attribute the behavior of others to external factors _____ to internal dispositions.

a. more often than
b. as often as
c. less often than *
d. instead of

20. Which of the following has been raised as an argument against the James-Lange theory of emotions?

a. Different cultures recognize the same basic emotions.
b. Emotions have standard, measurable physiological consequences.
c. There are more subjective emotions than different autonomic reaction patterns. *
d. The precise meanings of emotional terms vary from person to person.

21. _____ states that we really don't know ourselves directly, but that self-knowledge is achieved indirectly through the same methods that we use to understand others.

a. Attribution theory
b. Self-perception theory *
c. The James-Lange theory of emotions
d. none of the above

22. Pluralistic ignorance refers to the fact that:

a. if nobody knows what to do in an emergency, no action will be taken.
b. when there are a large number of people present, there is a tendency for bystanders to pretend that nothing is happening.
c. when other bystanders do not take action, those present are likely to define the situation as a nonemergency. *
d. in an emergency, large groups of people are easily swayed by a single dominant individual.

23. The idea that "opposites attract" seems to be:

a. generally untrue.*
b. true with respect to beliefs, but not for personality characteristics.
c. true with respect to personality characteristics, but not for beliefs or opinions.
d. true with respect to personality characteristics, but not for social status or religion.

24. Social facilitation:

a. occurs for highly stereotyped and dominant responses.
b. is ineffective for complex behaviors.
c. is more likely for more skilled performers.
d. all of the above *

25. Laboratory studies indicate that leaders are least likely to be effective:

a. if they are more intelligent and dominant than others in the group.
b. if the task to be performed is clear-cut rather than ambiguous.
c. if they have relatively little authority within the group. *
d. if the members of the group get along well with each other.

26. In the prisoner's dilemma, two prisoners (X and Y) have to decide whether to betray their accomplice or remain silent. In the payoff matrix for this situation, the outcome:

a. is best for both X and Y if they both remain silent.
b. is worst for X if Y confesses and X does not.
c. is best for both X and Y if they both confess.
d. both a and b *

27. According to Bandura's doctrine of reciprocal determinism:

a. situational factors are more important than personal factors as determinants of behavior.
b. behavior can feed back to shape the situation in which it occurs.*
c. the relation between persons and their environments is unidirectional.
d. one cannot untangle causality in complex social interactions.

28. Personality traits and social attitudes:

a. show high degrees of stability across both long and short intervals of time.
b. show high levels of consistency across widely different situations, but low levels of stability across long intervals of time.
c. are of limited usefulness in predicting behavior in specific situations.*
d. show low levels of consistency across highly similar situations, but high levels of stability across long intervals of time.

29. Why do people tend to wait, instead of immediately helping in an emergency?

a. Most people have very little courage.
b. Most people are unconsciously aggressive.
c. Many situations are ambiguous. *
d. Many situations induce conformity with group norms.

30. People's intrinsic motivation to engage in some activity:

a. is enhanced if they are rewarded for participating in that activity.
b. is undermined if they are rewarded for participating in that activity.*
c. is undermined if they are rewarded for achieving reasonable levels of performance in that activity.
d. is enhanced if they are rewarded for achieving exceptionally high levels of performance in that activity.

31. With respect to the influence of the person on the environment, stereotyping is an example of:

a. evocation.*
b. selection.
c. behavioral manipulation.
d. cognitive transformation.

32. If children must wait in the presence of a promised reward:

a. those with low levels of ego control will be able to wait longer.
b. children who think about the pleasures of the reward will be able to wait longer.
c. children who keep the reward out of sight will be able to wait longer.*
d. children with high levels of achievement motivation will be unable to wait for the reward.

33. Which of the following statements is true?

a. Linguistic development follows a different progression for each child.
b. Physical and mental development proceeds by an orderly sequence of steps. *
c. The sequence of language acquisition is: babbling, cooing, one-word speech, two-word speech, multi-word sentences.
d. The optimal time for initial language onset is ten months of age.

34. The phenotype of an individual:

a. is his or her overt behavior or visible appearance. *
b. is the individual's genetic blueprint.
c. is completely determined by the individual's genotype.
d. both a and c

35. Studies of infant-rearing practices in several cultures reveal that:

a. restricting an infant's early movements has no effect on later motor development.
b. systematic practice of various motor activities in infancy has no effect on the rate at which later motor development takes place.
c. although early experience may retard or accelerate the pace of motor development, the final level of performance is the same in either case. *
d. both a and b

36. When a child interprets a novel event or object in terms of the information he already possesses, the child is exhibiting:

a. assimilation. *
b. accommodation.
c. maturation.
d. egocentrism.

37. Both object permanence and deferred imitation:

a. demonstrate the existence of internal representations. *
b. are examples of circular reactions.
c. require the development of psychomotor coordination.
d. involve modification of schemas.

38. Recent studies on children's understanding of number ("threeness or "fiveness") indicate that:

a. Piaget was correct in arguing that this concept is not acquired before the concrete operational stage.
b. this understanding appears at about the age of four, several years earlier than Piaget expected.
c. this understanding has been observed in infants less than 7 months of age. *
d. this concept seems to be acquired nearly a year later than Piaget predicted.

39. Evidence for a developing theory of mind in children comes from the observation that:

a. two- and three-year-olds hide things, indicating an understanding of how others perceive objects.
b. two- to three-year-olds can predict the behavior of another child if they know what that child wants.
c. three-year-olds understand that others may hold false beliefs, even when the child knows the true state of things.
d. all of the above *

40. In assessing cross-cultural differences in cognitive development, your text notes that:

a. many such differences are related to the amount of schooling that individuals have.
b. some such differences are artifacts of the procedures we employ to test cognitive development.
c. some such differences come from interpreting non-Western behavior using our Western ideas.
d. all of the above *

41. Evidence consistent with the nativist approach to cognitive development comes from the observation that:

a. there are wide differences across cultures in the order in which children reach various milestones of cognitive development.
b. there is consistency across cultures in the order in which children reach various milestones of cognitive development. *
c. there is no correlation between the rate of cognitive development and the rate of physical development.
d. both b and c

42. Harlow reared monkeys with two artificial "mothers," one terry cloth and one wire. When only the wire mother provided food, the baby monkeys:

a. developed free-floating anxiety and confused the two mothers.
b. developed abnormalities in social relations which were not present if it was the terry-cloth mother that provided the milk.
c. preferred the wire mother most of the time, especially when frightened.
d. showed strong preference for the terry-cloth mother. *

43. Children from permissive homes are likely to:

a. be angry, immature, and lack social responsibility. *
b. be self-reliant, but anxious and aggressive.
c. be withdrawn, and to have high levels of social dependence.
d. show high leadership skills, but to be manipulative and emotionally distant from others.

44. Consider the following three objections to making three reservations on different airlines at the same time for one person: (1) It is against the unwritten rules of the airlines; (2) It interferes with the access of others, with no tangible gain to the party in question; (3) It can be detected, and penalties can be assessed. According to Kohlberg, how would these three reasons be arranged in terms of the development of moral reasoning (indicate the earliest stage first)?

a. 2, 3, 1
b. 3, 2, 1
c. 2, 1, 3
d. 3, 1, 2 *

45. According to cognitive development theory, the crucial factor that determines gender typing is:

a. the child's erotic feelings and the direction in which they are aimed.
b. the social factors that shape the individual's behavior by suitable rewards and punishments.
c. the child's gender identity. *
d. the child's awareness of his emerging sexual orientation.

46. Before the age of five a child usually cannot:

a. identify males or females if they are fully clothed.
b. understand the permanence of gender. *
c. answer whether she is a girl or a boy.
d. a and b

47. Studies of gender-role socialization indicate that:

a. boys and girls are not treated differently by their parents until about age 5.
b. children do not attach positive feelings to their own gender until after age 5.
c. children show good recognition of others' gender after age 3.*
d. girls are rewarded for acting alone, while boys are rewarded for seeking help.

48. Suppose that measurements of IQ yield a correlation for monozygotic twins raised together of .86. This fact, taken alone, can be interpreted to mean that:

a. there is genetic influence on IQ.
b. there is influence of the shared environment (between-family variance) on IQ.
c. there is influence of the nonshared environment (within-family variance) on IQ.*
d. no conclusions can be drawn without information about the corresponding correlations for dizygotic twins.

49. Upper- and lower-limit control behaviors by parents illustrate how the child shapes the environment through:

a. evocation.
b. selection.
c. behavioral manipulation.*
d. cognitive transformation.

50. Birth-order influences on intelligence and personality, if documented, would illustrate _____ aspects of the within-family environment.

a. child-driven
b. relationship-driven
c. parent-driven
d. family-context*