University of California, Berkeley
Department of Psychology

Psychology 1
Summer 2010

Midterm Examination 1

Scoring Key and Item Analysis

In the scoring key that follows, correct answers are marked with double pound signs (##).

Midterm 2 Exam PerformanceFollowing procedures outlined in the Exam Information page, the statistical analysis identified four (4) bad items: #s 6, 9, 37, and 39; a couple of other items which had been keyed incorrectly. The incorrectly keyed items were corrected, and the bad items were rescored correct for all responses. No other items will be rescored.

The average score on the exam, after rescoring, was 35.95, with a standard deviation of 6.93 -- 72% correct, which is pretty good by the standards of my exams in Psych 1, in which my usual mean is somewhere between 65-70% correct.

The scores entered into the ANGEL gradebook reflect this rescoring. Because of the corrected keying, and the rescoring of the four bad items, most students will notice that the exam score posted to the gradebook is higher than the initial score they received as initial feedback when they submitted their exam.

In what follows, I provide the percentage of the class that got each item correct, as well as the item-to-total correlation (rpb) for each item. I also include commentary on why the right answer is right, and the others wrong.

Choose the best answer to each of the following 50 questions. Questions are drawn from the text and lectures in roughly equal proportions, with the understanding that there is considerable overlap between the two sources. Usually, only one question is drawn from each major section of each chapter of the required readings; again, sometimes this question also draws on material discussed in class. Read the entire exam through before answering any questions: sometimes one question will help you answer another one.

Most questions can be correctly answered in one of two ways: (1) by fact-retrieval, meaning that you remember the answer from your reading of the text or listening to the lecture; or (2) inference, meaning that you can infer the answer from some general principle discussed in the text or lecture. If you cannot determine the correct answer by either of these methods, try to eliminate at least one option as clearly wrong: this maximizes the likelihood that you will get the correct answer by chance. Also, go with your intuitions: if you have actually done the assigned readings and attended the lectures, your "informed guesses" will likely be right more often than they are wrong.

1. What's the difference between recall and recognition?

a. Recall is faster and more consciously driven.

b. Recall is slower and less consciously driven.

c. Recognition requires you to determine whether you've encountered something before i.e.. a name, fact, or situation. ##

d. Both a and c are correct.

39% of the class got this item correct, item-to-total rpb = .35. Recall and recognition are both aspects of remembering called retrieval, or the process through which you draw information from storage and use it in some fashion. Recall is a task in which you draw information form memory in response to some cue or question (i.e.. What is Sue's boyfriend's name?) and recognition is a process of determining if you have encountered something before (i.e., showing someone a picture and asking if this is the man you saw at the bank robbery?)

2. A participant is required to report as much of a poem as he can remember after having read the poem once immediately prior to recall. In reciting the poem from memory, one expects the greatest number of errors in lines

a. at the beginning of the poem.

b. in the middle of the poem. ##

c. at the end of the poem.

d. Errors will be independent of the position of the line in the poem.

90% correct, rpb = .41. Words presented either at the beginning or at the end of a list (or lines at the beginning or end of poem) are likely to be recalled, this is the primacy and recency effect. However, words (or the lines of a poem) presented in the middle are much less likely to be remembered.

3. The depth-of-processing approach

a. assumes that the longer material is in working memory the more deep will be its memory traces.

b. is primarily concerned with a type of memory called "procedural."

c. suggests that thinking about material leads to better memory than does maintenance rehearsal. ##

d. holds that meaningless material produces greater depth of processing than does material that can easily be fitted into meaningful contexts.

72%, .53. Deep processing involves encoding that emphasizes the meaning of the material. Depth of processing falls on a shallow to deep continuum. Shallow processing (e.g. Phonemic or orthographic components) lead to weaker memory that is susceptible to more rapid decay. Conversely, deep processing (egg. Semantic processing) results in more long lasting memory.

4. Ribot's Law is defined as follows:

a. memory for faces exceeds memory for words.

b. memory for words exceeds memory for faces.

c. the older the memory, the less likely it is to be affected by amnesia. ##

d. the only memories that achieve permanent status in the brain are those including some sort of emotional response.

95%, .26. Older memories (be they faces, words or emotions) have presumably had enough time to consolidate, so they are less vulnerable to disruption. Newer memories are not yet consolidated so they are more liable to disruption.

5. The ______the processing (encoding) of information, the ______the likelihood of later remembering it.

a. simpler; less

b. simpler; greater

c. more elaborate; less

d. more elaborate; greater ##

90%, .33. What is placed in memory is not a neutral transcription of an event. Instead, what is placed in memory and, subsequently, what is retrieved, is highly reliant on the particular perspective and context of the memory and how much the new memory is worked into the original memory circuit. The more intricate the connections are during learning the more these connections serve as retrieval paths, leading you back to the desired information when the memory needs to be recalled.

6. Memory interference emerges only under particular circumstances. For example:

a. no interference is observed between dissimilar sorts of material.

b. interference occurs only if the things to be remembered are essentially incompatible.

c. color produces no interference; sound, however, does.

d. Both a and b are correct. ##

49%, .02. A bad item. No interference is observed between dissimilar sorts of material, (i.e.. Learning to skate does not interfere with one's memory for irregular French verbs). In addition, interference occurs only if the things to be remembered are essentially incompatible (i.e.. learning a group of words and then being asked to learn another, unrelated, group of words). If the new learning is consistent with the old, no interference is observed; in fact, the subsequent learning helps memory, rather than hindering it. So both B and B are correct: dissimilar items, like letters and numbers, do not interfere with each other; and interference increases to the extent that the two items are incompatible with each other -- it's this incompatibility that causes the interference. But someone could interpret "dissimilar" as meaning the same thing as "incompatible", which is probably why, in the end, it proved to be a bad item.

7. A patient with anterograde amnesia will

a. have a shorter memory span than will a normal person.

b. have serious difficulties in learning and retaining any new information. ##

c. suffer a loss of memories for at least five years prior to the cerebral trauma that caused his condition.

d. have difficulties remembering names for common objects.

85%, .42. Certain lesions in the temporal cortex (specifically the hippocampus and the nearby subcortical regions) produce anterograde amnesia. Anterograde (meaning in a forward direction) amnesia is an inability to learn anything new and an inability to form mew memories (ex. H.M. had undergone neurosurgery for epilepsy which destroyed parts of his hippocampus, since then he was unable to form any new long-term memories).

8. What term is used by researchers to describe the type of thinking that is aimed at the solution of a well-defined problem?

a. concentration

b. reflection

c. certainty

d. directed thinking ##

77%, .30.Directed thinking is the mental activity we use whenever we try to solve a problem, judge a truth of an assertion or weigh the costs and benefits in an importation decision.

9. What do the results from research on mental rotation and image scanning suggest?

a. Mental images cannot be studied experimentally.

b. Mental images are identical to the perception that produced them.

c. Mental images are primarily symbolic representations.

d. Mental images are primarily analogical representations. ##

40%, .18. A bad item. But frankly I don't know why. Analogical representations capture some of the actual characteristics of what they represent (i.e.. A picture of a mouse). In contrast, symbolic representations bear no actual resemblance to the item it stands for. Words are good examples of symbolic representations. Pictures are good examples of analogical representations, but pictures don't have to look like the things they represent. Think of a cartoon caricature, or a cubist painting by Picasso. Or just a drawing that's inaccurate -- the same way a mental image can be. Research in mental rotation found that the more a letter has to be rotated in order to be accurately identified as normal or backward, the longer the task takes. Similarly, research in image scanning has shown that when participants are asked to memorize a map with various locations and then mentally travel from one location to another, the amount of time it takes to do this is proportional to the distance between the two locations. These findings suggest that mental images are analogical representations, meaning that there are remarkable parallels between mental images and visual stimuli, between imagining and perceiving.

10. The ______distinction is known as a distinction between the memory for particular events in one's life and memory for the meaning of concepts and knowledge about the world.

a. procedural-declarative

b. autobiographical-declarative

c. parallel-hierarchical

d. episodic - semantic ##

78%, .31. Episodic memory is the memory of autobiographical events (i.e.. times, places, and contextual knowledge, you can recall when the memory was formed). In contrast, semantic memory is memory of meanings and concepts, unrelated to specific experiences (i.e.. Meaning of words, their pronunciation etc.)

11. Which of the following is an ill-defined problem?

a. navigating to a museum in a nearby city

b. composing a good concerto ##

c. finding out where several well-known authors were born

d. playing Scrabble

70%, .36. A problem is considered ill-defined if it does not state an exact goal nor present options for reaching the goal.

12. Joanne will not go out at night because she hears from her local news station about the large number of muggings and robberies that occur in her city. However, crime in Joanne's city has actually gone down in the past few years. What error in reasoning is Joanne falling victim to?

a. inductive reasoning error

b. irrationality

c. the availability heuristic ##

d. deductive reasoning error

70%, .55. The availability heuristic is a strategy that uses availability (i.e.. how easily a specific example comes to mind) as the basis for assessing frequency (how common the case actually is in the world). Frequency assessment is usually necessary for inductive reasoning, but because people do not always keep a tally of how often an event occurs, they rely on thinking of specific cases relevant to their judgment. However, people sometimes come to the incorrect conclusion that because an example comes to mind quickly and easily that it is a common one.

13. What is an important function of the prefrontal cortex?

a. It plays an important role in visual processing.

b. It assists in the shifting of visual attention.

c. It is the primary center for executive control. ##

d. It is the primary center for auditory processing.

93%, .13. Self control: considerable evidence suggests that the prefrontal cortex plays a crucial role in many aspects of self-control. People who have suffered damage to this brain area show considerable disruption on tasks requiring them to switch between tasks or organize and plan goal directed actions. This is, in part, because they have difficult inhibiting impulses.

14. The term blindsight refers to

a. seeing, but without the conscious experience of seeing. ##

b. a type of hysterical blindness brought on by extreme anxiety, as in posttraumatic stress disorders.

c. an objective blindness, as shown by the inability to orient to objects that appear suddenly in the visual field.

d. the inability to use vision by partially blind people who have become highly skilled in using touch and hearing.

73%, .35. Some patients who suffer from damage to the occipital cortex (the main 'receiving area' in the brain for visual information) report that they can see nothing in large parts of their visual field (they fail to react to all visual stimuli including bright flashes of light). However, certain experiments indicate that when these patients are asked to guess what certain stimuli are, they make surprisingly accurate guesses. This indicates that the patients are able to perceive at least some aspects of the visual world, even though thy have no conscious experience of seeing.

15. A mental test is considered reliable if

a. it actually measures the characteristic that it was designed to measure.

b. it consistently measures whatever it measures. ##

c. scores obtained on the test are accurate measures of the characteristics in question.

d. an individual's score on the test remains the same no matter what happens.

56%, 23. One way to assess reliability of measurement is by administering a test more than once. If we get the same result each time, this indicates that our test is reliable. This is called test-retest reliability. Another form of reliability, inter-rater reliability, looks at the agreement between two judges (raters) scoring the same test. Another form of reliability, known as split-half reliability, examines splits a test in half (e.g., between odd- and even-numbered items) and looks at the correlation between them. Yet another way to assess reliability examines the correlation between performance on a test item and performance on the test as a whole -- this is the item-to-total correlation that we use in looking for "bad" test items.

16. The intelligence test developed by Binet was originally composed of items that

a. varied in both content and difficulty. ##

b. required no prior knowledge.

c. directly tapped pure intelligence.

d. posed unfamiliar problems to be solved.

87%, .36. The Binet intelligence test included a broad range of subtasks varying in both content and difficulty, such as copying a drawing, repeating a string of digits, understanding a story, and so on.

17. The ability to effectively deal with new and unusual problems is referred to as

a. artistic intelligence.

b. fluid g. ##

c. speed g.

d. mach g.

84%, .48. Fluid g (one aspect of general intelligence) refers to the ability to deal with new and unusual problems and is highly influenced by mental speed and flexibility. Fluid intelligence reaches its height in early adulthood and declines steadily with age.

18. Which of the following has been offered as an explanation for g?

a. g is a statistical summary of the data rather than a representation of a single capacity.

b. g reflects the functioning of neural circuitry related to working memory.

c. g reflects the speed of neural communication.

d. All of the above answers are correct. ##

65%, -.06. I don't know what happened to the item-to-total correlation here, it should have been at least positive, but given that more than 50% of the class got it correct, we didn't rescore it. One hypothesis proposes that high-IQ people are faster in all mental steps, that they perform intellectual tasks more quickly, which allows them time for more steps in comparison to those people who are not so quick'this may be perhaps because their neurons are more efficient in their information transmission. Another explanation of g is that it relies heavily on working memory and on our ability to control our own attention. This working-memory capacity can be measured by the operation-span task. Lastly, it has been suggested that intelligence is a diverse set of attributes and is comprised of several constituents that are all different, however interrelated. Thus, we can create one score (IQ) to describe and measure the broad construct of intelligence, but this score will fail to tell us anything specific about the many components at contribute to that score.

19. What did the study of racetrack handicappers find?

a. Consistent with the idea that academic and nonacademic intelligence are different, their performance at handicapping was negatively correlated with their IQs.

b. Consistent with the idea that academic and nonacademic intelligence are different, their performance at handicapping was uncorrelated with their IQs. ##

c. Consistent with the idea that academic and nonacademic intelligence are related, their performance at handicapping was positively correlated with their IQs.

d. Consistent with the idea that academic and nonacademic intelligence are related, racetrack handicappers had higher IQs than did racetrack bettors.

62%, .40. Racetrack handicappers are able to predict the outcomes and payoffs in upcoming horse races. This is a tricky mental task that involves highly complex reasoning. Factors like track records, jockeying and track conditions all have to be remembered and weighed against one another. Researchers found that the handicappers' success at making these predictions was completely unrelated to their IQs.

20. Comparisons between the correlations of intelligence scores in identical and fraternal twins are often regarded as evidence for the role of genetic factors in the development of intelligence. This argument is based on the assumption that

a. siblings have shared genes and shared environments.

b. identical twins have the same phenotype.

c. fraternal twins have the same genotype and different phenotypes.

d. the environments of identical twins are no more similar than those of fraternal twins. ##

37%, .42. Identical twins, resemble each other genetically more than fraternal twins do, and this fact makes it striking that identical twins resemble each other in their IQs more than fraternal twins do. Clearly, then, genetic influences play a powerful role in shaping someone's intellectual capacities. Genetic effects always unfold within an environmental context, and so, environmental factors also shape the development of intellect. However, in order to compare the effects of genetics on the development of intellect of fraternal and identical twins reared by their biological parents, we have to assume that the environments in which these twins are not significantly different from one another. The impact of genetic factors is even clearer when we consider results obtained from identical twins who were separated soon after birth, adopted by different families, and reared in different households. These twins continue to show significant correlations in intelligence.

21. Regarding the issue of whether intelligence tests are culturally biased, it appears to be true that

a. members of different cultures may have different degrees of exposure to the information relevant to answering questions on an intelligence test. ##

b. attempts to reduce bias have had no effect on test scores.

c. members of different cultures may have different vocabularies for routine use.

d. All of the above.

44%, .35. There are very few "pure" intelligence tests. A test like the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, for example, includes items pertaining to both mathematical ability and language. If you haven't had much instruction in arithmetic, or English, you're not going to do very well ' no matter how smart you are. For this reason, people who are brought up in one culture are likely to score relatively low on tests devised in another culture.

22. The word studying contains ______morphemes.

a. one

b. two ##

c. three

d. eight

85%, .30. Morphemes are the smallest language units that carry bits of meaning. Ex. Talk, tree, and the 'ed morpheme that marks the past tense or the 'ing morpheme that marks the action in present tense. Thus, study-ing consists of two morphemes.

23. According to the definitional theory of word meaning, we see a group of words as having similar meaning when the words

a. sound the same.

b. share features of meaning. ##

c. refer to the same object.

d. elicit similar mental images.

63%, .36. The definitional theory of word meaning states that words are organized in our minds as they are in a standard dictionary and each word can be understood as a bundle of meaning 'parts' or semantic features. Words that share features are to that extent similar in meaning (wicked-evil); words with single opposed features are antonyms (wicked-good); words that share no features (wicked-turquoise) are unrelated in meaning. The feature similarities also allow us to identify clusters of words ' ex. Bachelor, uncle, brother, gander, and stallion ' all words that share the feature of [maleness].

24. Two-day-old babies were exposed to recordings of normal speech and to recordings of speech played backwards. What did a recording of the blood flow in their brains show?

a. There was an increase in blood flow to both hemispheres of the brain for both backwards and forward recordings of speech.

b. There was a decrease in blood flow to both hemispheres of the brain for both backwards and forward recordings of speech.

c. When they heard the recording of normal speech only, there was a decrease in blood flow to the left hemisphere.

d. When they heard the recording of normal speech only, there was an increase in blood flow to the left hemisphere. ##

67%, .41. The left hemisphere of the brain is the major site of linguistic activity in humans. Normal speech, not backwards speech, increases activity in the left hemisphere, suggesting that special responsiveness to language-like signals is already happening close to the moment of birth.

25. Generally speaking, it seems to be the case that young children learn the basic-level word dog before they learn the

a. superordinate term animal.

b. subordinate term beagle.

c. name of any particular dog (Spot).

d. Both a and b are correct answers. ##

85%, .37. Word learning is heavily influences by the ways children think about and categorize objects and events in the world. This is reflected, for example, in the fact that young children acquire the basic-level words for whole objects (dog) before learning the superordinates (animals) or subordinates (Chihuahua).

26. ______contact with others must minimally occur for one to learn language.

a. Verbal

b. Visual

c. Auditory

d. Social ##

57%, .26. The work on wild and isolated children argues that children will learn language only in the presence of some contact with, and some interaction with, other humans. In other words, in order to learn language, one needs some exposure to language. This requires contact with other humans, but it does not require auditory contact. Being able to see the gestures of others is enough to enable one to detect the patterns and thus to learn the rules and semantic content of the system.

27. Seven-year-olds have a better chance of recovering from aphasia (a disorder that affects language skills) than do fifty-year-olds with similar brain damage. What can be said of this data?

a. It suggests that young brains are less developed than older brains.

b. It suggests that old brains take more time to recover from injuries than young brains.

c. It is consistent with the critical period hypothesis of language learning. ##

d. It refutes the critical period hypothesis of language learning.

84%, .33. The critical period hypothesis states that the brain of the young child is particularly well suited to the task of language learning. As the brain matures, this critical period draws to a close so that later learning (both of a first language and of other languages) becomes more difficult.

28. Whorf advanced the idea that language sets limits on thought. He claimed, for instance, that certain Eskimo languages such as Inuit contain as many as 300 different words for snow, and that speakers of such languages therefore make much finer distinctions among snow types than do speakers of other languages. Why is this contention flawed?

a. English actually has more snow-related terms than does Inuit.

b. Perhaps Inuit speakers make finer snow distinctions because they live in a world filled with snow, not because they have more words for snow than do others.

c. There are only 10 different forms of snow and these forms are recognized universally, even by people never before exposed to snow.

d. Both a and b are correct. ##

44%, .44. The initial claim about vocabulary size is actually false; English turns out to have more snow-related terms than does Inuit. A plausible alternative is that the Inuit's day to day activities create a functional need for these discriminations, and this leads both to the larger vocabulary and to the greater skill in picking out different types of snow.

29. What is the difference between obedience and compliance?

a. You are being obedient when you are told to do something, not asked. ##

b. You are being obedient when you are asked to do something, not told to do it.

c. You are being compliant when you are told to do something, not asked.

d. Obedience results in more long-lasting behavior change.

84%, .42. There are three broad types of social influence. The first ' conformity- occurs when people change their behavior because of social pressure (either explicit or implicit). The second ' obedience- occurs when people change their behavior because someone tells them to. And third ' compliance ' occurs when people change their behavior because someone merely asks them to.

30. Under what conditions are members of collectivistic cultures most likely to conform?

a. when they are in the company of family ##

b. when they are motivated by external reward

c. when they are surrounded by others whom they do not know and with whom they do not share any kind of bond

d. under all conditions studied they are more likely to conform than are members of individualistic cultures

55%, .29. Collectivists are more likely to conform with members of a group to which they are tied by traditional bonds- their family, classmates, close friends, and fellow workers. But, in contrast, they are less affected than are individualists by people with whom thy do not share close interpersonal bonds.

31. Some charities enclose small gifts for the recipient, such as return address labels, in their fundraising letters. This strategy seems to rely on the

a. generosity principle.

b. self-disclosure effect.

c. reciprocity principle. ##

d. reciprocal-concession effect.

81%, .46. According to Robert Cialdini, we often feel most compelled to comply with a request when the requester has done something for us in the past. This is because the norm of reciprocity is a powerful engine of behavior. Accepting a favor necessarily leads to a sense of indebtedness and we feel that we must repay the one who gave us something.

32. Research on bystander intervention suggests that if you are attacked on the street,

a. you are more likely to get help if there are several people nearby than just one (besides your attacker).

b. you should yell "Fire!" rather than "Help!" to attract attention and to increase the odds that someone will help you.

c. and there are several bystanders, your chances of getting help are better if you look directly at someone while you yell for help, rather than looking all around. ##

d. in a city, the only way you will be helped is if there happens to be a police officer nearby.

78%, .44. The presence of multiple bystanders creates a diffusion of responsibility, with each bystander persuaded that someone else will respond to the emergency and someone else will take responsibility. By focusing on just one person when you are being attacked will place more direct attention and greater responsibility by creating a sense of a smaller 'crowd size'. Research shows that the larger the size of the group that the participant thought she was in, the less likely she was to come to the victim's assistance.

33. Bibb Latan's social impact theory argues that the

a. individual is exposed to a field of converging social forces.

b. impact of others on an individual is greater if the others are of high status or power.

c. total social impact on an individual increases with the number of others who affect the individual.

d. All of the above.##

67%, .14. Social impact theory predicts that as the strength and immediacy increase within a group, conformity will also increase. The more sources of influence, the more their converging impact. The emphasis of social impact theory is on the sheer numbers of other people present in the actor's environment. But, as discussed in lecture the salience of these other people, including their status and power with respect to the actor, also increases social impact.

34. Homogamy refers to our tendency to

a. like members of the same sex.

b. marry individuals who are similar to ourselves. ##

c. bring our attitudes and behaviors into agreement with those of others.

d. meet and like individuals who live nearby.

94%, .22. Homogamy is the powerful tendency for like to select like. One widely cited study showed that engaged couples in the US are generally similar along several dimensions; such as race, ethnic origin, social and educational level, family background, income, religious affiliation, as well as behavioral patterns such as degree of gregariousness and drinking and smoking habits.

35. Companionate love typically

a. precedes romantic love.

b. follows romantic love. ##

c. is independent of romantic love.

d. is opposite to romantic love.

50%, .35. It is widely believed that romantic love tends to be short-lived. Sometimes it turns into indifference or active dislike, but other times it transforms into a related and gentler love, or companionate love. This type of love is sometimes defined as the 'affection we feel for those with whom our lives are deeply intertwined'. True, one doesn't (typically) feel romantic love for blood relatives. But the point of the question is that romantic love, which we feel for our spouses or significant others, doesn't always last for a lifetime. Instead, the normal pattern is for romantic love -- the kind of love we feel when we first fall in love, and are on our honeymoon, etc., gradually fades somewhat and begins to be replaced by companionate love. Put another way, romantic love is somewhat episodic. At some point, the romantic love we feel for our spouses is followed by companionate love for the same person -- as well as for blood relatives.

36. In general, trait theories involve the idea that

a. different situations produce entirely different behaviors.

b. a person's behavior is rarely consistent across time and situations.

c. people can be grouped according to their basic underlying personality characteristics. ##

d. the search for patterns in personality is misguided.

77%, .36. The trait approach assumes that people differ from one another in how they think, feel, and behave, and that these differences are relatively stable across different situations and over time. We commonly identify these differences by talking about traits- like is he friendly or not, helpful or not. Unlike states, which are temporary (being angry at this moment), traits are relatively enduring (egg. Being generally hot headed), and, as a result, trait labels allow us to summarize what someone is like.

37. Jamal and Liz are each given two tests of fearfulness, both rated on a 10-point scale, on which zero means no fear and 10 means maximum fear. In the first test, both Jamal and Liz are confronted with a vicious dog. Here, Jamal's fear rating is 9 points and Liz's is 5. In the second test, both are about to take a difficult examination. Here, Jamal's rating is 5 points and Liz's is 9. These results illustrate

a. situational effects.

b. differences in personal traits.

c. person-by-situation interactions.##

d. None of the above.

37%, .18. A bad item. As a glance at past exams indicates, I always ask a question like this, though the correct answer varies, depending on the details of the question. Remember, that an effect of the situation is the same regardless of the person in it. An effect of the person is the same regardless of the situation he or she is in. But in this question, Jamal's fear goes down when he moves from the dog to the exam, while Liz's fear goes up. This is a perfect example of a cross-over interaction, and a perfect illustration of the Doctrine of Interactionism. The way to solve these kinds of problems is to draw a little graph. Plot the situation (in this case, dog vs. exam) on the X-axis, and the dependent variable (in this case, fear) on the Y-axis, and use initials (J or L) to indicate the data points. Then connect the data points. If the lines are parallel, there's no interaction. If the lines cross over, or fan out, or differ in slope, there's an interaction. This question was perfectly good, but it offers an example of the virtues of objective item analysis: the statistics (low pass percent plus low item-to-total correlation) indicate that, for whatever reason, this was just a bad item. So we rescored it correct for all responses.

38. Situations in which we are most liable to show our "true colors" are

a. ambiguous. ##

b. highly structured.

c. tension producing.

d. composed of members of the same sex.

34%, .30. Some situations, often dubbed strong situations, produce near- uniformity in behavior (ex. Traffic lights, exam halls, fancy restaurants). Weak situations, by contrast, allow for a wider variety of behaviors. Examples Included informal parties, playgrounds and being home alone, and in these more ambiguous situations is where we are most likely to show our 'true colors'.

39. With respect to family determinants of personality,

a. in general, within-family differences are more important than between-family differences.

b. between-family differences are fairly important in the development of intelligence.

c. between-family differences may be more important when we consider families from a wider range of socioeconomic classes, and from different cultures.

d. All of the above. ##

44%, -.12. A bad item. Here's another example of a perfectly good question, but one which the item analysis identifies as "bad", so we rescored it. I think people have a hard time grasping the difference between between- and -within family differences. Between-family differences are those that tend to make children from the same family alike, and different from children of other familiies. Within-family differences are those that make children from the same family different from each other. One of the most surprising things about personality is that children from the same family differ among each other almost as much as do children from different families. As the saying goes, "Every child is born into a different family". This is not so true for intelligence, which has a strong genetic component: here the between-family differences are greater, not only because of genetic factors, but also because of differences in culture, attitudes toward schooling, and exposure to various types of knowledge. Between-family differences are relatively unimportant in most areas of personality, but they do tend to be important in intelligence. And, of course, if you compare families that differ radically from each other in terms of education, or SES, or culture, you'll get bigger between-family differences.

40. If you've got a devil on one shoulder, telling you to do something "naughty," and an angel on the other, urging you to remain upright and moral, then the devil, according to Freud, would represent the

a. ego.

b. id. ##

c. superego.

d. archetype.

68%, .35. According to Freud, the id is the most primitive portion of the personality, the portion from which the ego and the superego emerge. It consists of all of the basic biological urges such as eating, drinking, sex and aggression. The id seeks constantly to reduce the tensions generated by all these biological urges and it abides entirely by the pleasure principle 'satisfaction now and not lager, regardless of the circumstances and whatever the cost.

41. In examining the relationship between delay of gratification at age four and later adolescent behavior, Mischel found that the childhood ability to delay gratification was positively correlated with ______in adolescence.

a. academic and social competence

b. attentiveness and verbal fluency

c. self-reliance

d. all of the above ##

67%, .14. Longitudinal studies of children show remarkable correlations between children's ability to delay gratification at the age of 4 and some of their personality characteristics a decade later. Being able to tolerate lengthy delays of gratification in early childhood predicts both academic and social competence in adolescence and also general coping ability. When compared to the children who could not delay gratification, those who could were judged (as young teenagers) to be more articulate, attentive, self-reliant, able to plan and think ahead, academically competent, and resilient under stress.

42. What is the main underlying theme of positive psychology?

a. the importance of "fixing" humans

b. defining and advocating the "good life" ##

c. the importance of documenting successful human lives

d. focus on lower-level human needs

74%, .29. The study of positive psychology uses research and scientific tools to address questions hinging on what it is that makes us happy and healthy, what makes us content with our lives and our relationships. It carries on Maslow's vision of a psychology concerned not only with what is basic about human nature, but also what is good and admirable about us.

43. The fundamental attribution error is

a. taking a behavior as a sign of internal dispositions and downplaying obvious or potential situational determinants. ##

b. placing too much weight on situational determinants in making attributions for behavior.

c. the tendency to see conformity in behavior across situations as based on an inferred internal disposition.

d. overemphasizing the role of chance in determining behavior.

82%, .45. The fundamental attribution error developed from observations by social psychologists that people routinely ascribe others' behavior to dispositions and not to situations ' even when there is ample reason to believe that situations are, in fact, playing a crucial role.

44. Those who regard personality as liable to change over time and who therefore avoid global judgments are called:

a. entity theorists.

b. incremental theorists. ##

c. developmental theorists.

d. cognitive theorists.

45%, .51. People in collectivistic cultures, where the self is understood as changing according to relationships and situations, tend to view personality as malleable. Incremental theorists believe personality to be changeable and make more cautious and more specific generalizations about others people's personalities.

45. Game-show contestants who lose often attribute their loss to bad luck in the selection of particular questions that were asked. They are thereby demonstrating

a. implicit attitudes.

b. self-serving bias. ##

c. the effectiveness of self-perception theory.

d. a failure to resolve cognitive dissonance.

81%, .36. The self-serving bias has been observed in many studies of the impact of feedback in Western cultures. By and large, participants attribute their successes to internal factors (they were pretty good at such tasks, and they worked hard) and their failures to external factors (the task was too difficult, and they were unlucky).

46. In the 1930s, Richard LaPiere stopped at hotels and restaurants with a Chinese couple. Later, he asked each establishment by letter whether they would house or serve Chinese persons. LaPiere found that

a. most establishments actually discriminated against the Chinese couple, but later wrote that they did not discriminate against Chinese persons.

b. most establishments did not discriminate against the Chinese couple, but later wrote that they did not serve or house Chinese persons. ##

c. most establishments served the Chinese couple, and later wrote that they did so.

d. most establishments refused to serve the Chinese couple, and later wrote that they did not serve or house Chinese persons.

81%, .32. in the 1930s there was considerable discrimination against Asians in the US and at that time Richard LaPiere traveled throughout the US with a Chinese couple, stopping at over 50 hotels and motels and nearly 200 restaurants. All but 1 hotel gave them accommodations, and no restaurant refused them service. Later on, the very same establishments received a letter that asked whether they would house or serve Chinese persons, and 92% of the replies were negative. It appeared that there was major inconsistency between people's attitudes as verbally expressed and their actual behavior.

47. Why do peripheral arguments often lead to persuasion?

a. They are forceful because they present critical facts that are persuasive.

b. They lead one to use rules of thumb, such as reliance on experts, to evaluate them regardless of the message.##

c. They are more resistant to the effects of distracting events.

d. All of the above answers are correct.

60%, .52. There are two routes to persuasion; central and peripheral route. We take the peripheral route to persuasion if we do not care much about an issue, or if the message is not clearly heard because of background noise, or if we are otherwise distracted. In such circumstances, content and arguments matter little. What counts instead is how or by whom or in what surroundings the message is presented. Similarly, we might be more inclined to be persuaded by the good looks of an attractive spokes-person if we are not paying much attention to the content of the message itself. These are all short-cuts to opinion-formation or change, and don't have much to do with the content of the message, especially whether the communication presents critical facts. Peripheral arguments aren't more resistant to distraction, but we do tend to rely on them when we're distracted by other things.

48. According to cognitive dissonance theory, we value a goal more highly if it was difficult to reach because we

a. need to justify the effort we exerted to reach the goal. ##

b. need to reduce our feeling of forced compliance.

c. need to make our emotions consistent with our cognitions.

d. are more aware of high-effort behaviors than of low-effort behaviors.

66%, .24. A good example of this comes from many American college fraternities and their unpleasant, and in some cases, humiliating hazing rituals. The rituals, though they may be objectionable, serve a function; they lead new fraternity members to place a higher value on their membership than they otherwise would. They know what they have suffered through to achieve membership, and it would create dissonance for them to believe that they have suffered for no purpose.

49. The James-Lange theory of emotion asserts that feelings

a. are the awareness of bodily changes. ##

b. precede bodily changes.

c. precede behavior.

d. rely on cognitive interpretations.

74%, .49. James argued that emotions begin when we perceive a situation of an appropriate sort ' we see the bear or hear an insult. But our perceptions of these events is, as James put it, 'purely cognitive in form, pale colorless, destitute of emotional warmth'. What turns this perception into genuine emotions is our awareness of the bodily changes produced by the arousing stimuli. These changes might consist of skeletal movements (running) or visceral reactions (pounding heart), but in all cases, it is the biological changes (and our detection of them) that move us from cold appraisal to emotional feeling, from mere assessment to genuine affect.

50. According to the facial feedback hypothesis, one way of feeling more happy and less depressed would be to

a. look at pictures of happy faces.

b. spend more time with happy people who smile a lot.

c. smile. ##

d. look at yourself in the mirror for one hour per day.

88%, .26. Facial feedback hypotheses holds that our facial movements feed back to our emotional experience, so that changes in our facial responses lead to changes in our emotional experiences. In experiments of people forced to smile (by holding a pen in their teeth) during the viewing of a cartoon, report greater amount of amusement than people who were forced to frown (by holding a pen in their lips).

Retain this exam, along with a record of your answers.

A provisional answer key will be posted to the course website.

The exam will be provisionally scored to identify and eliminate bad items.

The exam will then be rescored with bad items keyed correct for all responses.

Grades will be posted to the course website.

A final, revised, answer key, and analyses of the exam items,

will be posted on the course website after grades are posted.

Requests for rescoring must be received within

two (2) days of the posting of grades.

Each request should be accompanied by a paragraph

indicating why the answer given in the key is incorrect.