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  Taking Charge
See Taking Charge: Managing Community Alcohol and Drug Risk Environments. This planning manual provides step-by-step information to apply the Three Actor Model using the SPF Five Step planning approach.
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Date of last update: 01/19/07

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Glossary
Prevention Science Terminology
Footnotes
Glossary Resources



Prevention Science Terminology

ABC
The Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control, the state agency responsible for licensing and regulation of alcoholic beverages. http://www.abc.ca.gov/

Action Plan
A manager's guide for running the project. It shows, often through a set of program objectives and a timeline or task outline, what staff or others need to do to implement a project (e.g., hire outreach worker, launch media campaign, revise curriculum). Action plans are often confused with logic models. A logic model on the other hand, illustrates the changes that occur as a result of hiring an outreach worker, launching a media campaign, or using revised curricula. (For example, trained outreach workers lead to more information about prevention services in a high-risk neighborhood; increased contacts with outreach workers leads to a greater proportion of hard-to-reach clients coming in for services).

Activity
A time-limited task, usually involving direct experience and participation of a student or students.

Activity/Strategy
Type of service and activities the program provides to remedy the problem. Includes how much (level of intensity) and when (frequency).

ADP
Alcohol and Drug Programs. The State of California's Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs' mission statement is: "To lead California's strategy to reduce alcohol and other drug problems by developing, administering, and supporting prevention and treatment programs." http://www.adp.cahwnet.gov/

Agent
Usually defined as something capable of carrying disease in humans, such as a pathogen, it can also mean products that are known to cause disease in humans, such as alcohol or tobacco. Part of the epidemiological triad of disease. (See "Host", "Vector", and "Environment")

Alcohol Outlet
A retail business that sells alcohol beverage to the public or to a select membership. Under the 21st Amendment, each state has the power to control the means by which alcohol is made available to the public. ( See Off-sale & On-sale outlets)

Alternative Activities
Provides for the participation of target populations in activities that exclude drug use. The assumption is that because constructive and healthy activities offset the attraction to drugs, or otherwise meet the needs usually filled by drugs, then the population would avoid using drugs. Examples include: drug-free social and recreational activities; drug-free dances and parties; youth and adult leadership activities; community drop-in centers; community service activities; and mentoring programs.

Analysis
Analysis is the process and method of organizing and interpreting sets of data. This process occurs with both quantitative and qualitative data. The results of analysis allow for the comparability of the data to groups both within and without the study, as well as, provide information as to a project's success and areas for modification.

AOD
Alcohol and other drugs.

Application
The process of converting information into scientifically sound, practical procedures that can be used effectively by prevention practitioners.

Arnstein's Ladder
Sherry Arnstein, writing in 1969 about citizen involvement in planning processes in the United States, described a ladder of participation with eight steps: 1. Manipulation;
2. Therapy; 3. Informing; 4. Consultation; 5. Placation; 6. Partnership; 7. Delegated power; and 8. Citizen Control.

Asset Mapping
Mapping community assets means: 1) collecting an inventory of all the good things about your community; 2) ranking the most valued aspects of your community; and, 3) discovering the reasons why people place high value on assets in your community. Once you have this map of the valued aspects of your community, you can collectively strategize about how to build on the assets in order to sustain and enhance them for future generations. The process of asset mapping provides a critical element of community development—the engagement of people in the shaping of their community.

ATOD
Alcohol, tobacco and other drugs

Availability
Access by the community to alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs.

BAC
Blood alcohol content is the amount of alcohol present in a 100 milliliter (mL) volume of blood. For example 80 mg is 0.08 grams, 0.08 grams of alcohol in 100 mLs is written as 0.08%.

Best practices
Strategies, activities, approaches, or programs shown through research and evaluation to be effective at preventing and/or delaying substance abuse.

Biased sample
A sample that is not representative of the population from which it is taken. This bias often occurs because the method used to collect the data contains unwanted influence(s). (see "Sample")

CADPAAC
The County Alcohol and Drug Program Administrators Association of California (CADPAAC) is a non-profit organization comprised of the designated county alcohol and drug program administrators representing the 58 counties within California. http://www.cadpaac.org/

CARS
Center for Applied Research, former EMT Group, Inc. a research and training organization for public, private, and nonprofit organizations nationwide. Its focus is primarily clients in the health and human services, education, and criminal justice fields. http://www.emt.org/

CDC
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/

CPI
Community Prevention Institute, a technical assistance and training project funded by the State of California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs, intended to serve California agencies and organizations involved in community-based prevention. http://www.ca-cpi.org/

Circumstances of ATOD Use

The social occasions in which people are gathered for some common purpose. Circumstances can also be called situations and are not bound by a particular setting or location.

Club Live
Club Live, the junior high version of Friday Night Live, brings this exciting youth development program to 7th and 8th graders. Club Live events and activities are high energy as well as student led. Club Live members have the continual opportunity to learn ways to socialize and have fun in a drug and alcohol free atmosphere. Activities include assemblies, noontime events, dances, and community service.

Community
1) a group of people living in a particular local area ("the team is drawn from all parts of the community"); 2) a group of people having ethnic or cultural or religious characteristics in common ("the Christian community of the apostolic age"; "he was well known throughout the Catholic community"); 3) common ownership ("they shared a community of possessions"); 4) a group of nations having common interests ("they hoped to join the NATO community"); 5) profession, the body of people in a learned occupation ("the news spread rapidly through the medical community") 6) community of interests, agreement as to goals ("the preachers and the bootleggers found they had a community of interests") 7) residential district, residential area, a district where people live; occupied primarily by private residences; 8) biotic community (ecology) a group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other

Community Action Groups

Also known as Community-Based Coalitions, are nonprofit groups formed to bring about large-scale prevention efforts in communities. Their success depends on enlisting others with skills and resources to achieve their objectives. MADD is a well-known example.

Core Indicators
Performance and outcome indicators that AOD policy makers use to benchmark the performance of their community/county in AOD prevention. A substitute measure for a concept that is not directly observable or measurable (e.g. prejudice, substance abuse). For example, an indicator of "substance abuse" could be "rate of emergency room admissions for drug overdose." Because of the imperfect fit between indicators and concepts, it is better to rely on several indicators rather than just one when measuring this type of concept.

Correlation
Correlation is when findings appear to be linked, or to move up or down at the same time. Caution. Correlated findings do not mean that one causes the other. Correlated findings both move together in the same direction at the same time.

Coverage
The extent to which the program is serving the intended target population.

CSAP
The Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, the federal agency responsible for alcohol and other drug prevention initiatives. http://www.samhsa.gov/centers/csap/csap.html

Cultural Competence
Understanding and appreciating the cultural differences and similarities within, among, and between groups, including values, norms, traditions, customs, arts, history, folklore, music, and institutions. This requires both the willingness and the ability to draw on community-based values, traditions, and customs.

CUP
Conditional Use Permit, a local zoning ordinance that permits local review of proposed alcohol beverage outlets, with the ability to place preventive conditions of operation on the use, such as earlier closing times, lighting, less window advertising, use of security guards, etc.

Data Map
A data map is an inventory of the data sources that inform prevention activities. A data map is a document that tells you where data can be obtained, and how the information is available.

DEA
Federal Drug Enforcement Administration. http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/

Decoys
Decoys are minors who attempt to purchase alcohol or tobacco products while under the supervision of law enforcement agencies; may result in citations for sales to minors. The process is called a "compliance check" or a "sting."

DFSCA
Drug Free Schools and Communities Act.

Disaggregated Data
Disaggregated data break down information into specific homogenous subsets of the population in question. Such subsets could include gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and geographic location. Each step of disaggregation of data provides greater and greater detail and specificity of sub populations, at the cost of generalizability and sample size.

Dissemination of Information

The dissemination of information is characterized by one-way communication from the source to the audience, with limited contact between the two. Examples of methods used for this strategy include the following: clearinghouses and other information resource centers; resource directories; media campaigns; brochures; radio and television public service announcements; speaking engagements; and health fairs.

DOE
Federal Department of Education. http://www.ed.gov/index.jhtml

Domain
Sphere of activity or affiliation within which people live, work and socialize (e.g. self, peer, school, workplace, community, society). (See Prevention Program Classification)

Drug
Includes alcohol, tobacco and other drugs such as marijuana and cocaine.

Effectiveness
The improvement in health and safety outcomes that a prevention strategy can produce in typical Community based settings.

Efficiency
A measure of the relationship between inputs and outputs in a prevention strategy. Efficiency goes beyond effectiveness of a prevention strategy by attempting to identify the maximum health output achievable for a set amount of resources.

Empowerment Evaluation
Evaluation that is designed to support program participants and staff in self-evaluation of their own programs (a form of internal evaluation).

EMT
Evaluation, Training & Management Inc., an organization contracted to provide prevention technical assistance (TA) and training in California. Now Center for Applied Research Solutions (see CARS). http://www.emt.org/

Environment
The surroundings in which an agent that causes disease can proliferate in a host. The environment can be conducive or hindering to the spread of disease, and in terms of ATOD use, can include the cultural, political, historical, economic and/or social constructs in which ATOD use occurs. (See "Agent", "Host", and "Vector")

Environmental Prevention
Seeks to establish or change community standards, codes, and attitudes, thereby influencing the incidence and prevalence of drug abuse in the general population. Examples include: the establishment and review of drug policies in schools; technical assistance to communities to maximize local enforcement procedures governing the availability and distribution of drugs; the review and modification of alcohol and tobacco advertising practices; and product pricing strategies.

Evaluation
Systematic collection, analysis, and use of program information for multiple purposes, including monitoring, program improvement, outcome assessment, planning, and policy-making.

Exemplary Practices
Those which long-term empirical research and evaluation have documented to be effective in reducing AOD use or violence (CDE definition).

Experimental Design
An experimental design is the structure of a study that allows the researcher to appropriately analyze the data with statistical methods to determine effects of the study. Very often this involves randomization of subjects into control and treatment groups, so that the groups are comparable in every way except for the study's treatment. In this way, the effect of the study can be measured. The results obtained from such studies typically yield the most definitive and defensible evidence of an intervention's effectiveness. There are several experimental designs available to a researcher, other than randomized, including longitudinal studies, factorial designs, retrospective studies, and repeated measures—among others.

External Evaluation
Evaluation done by consultants or researchers not working for the same organization as the program.

Fidelity
Fidelity is the agreement (concordance) of a replicated program model or strategy to the specifications of the original. On a continuum of high to low, where high represents the closest adherence to the developer's design, it is the degree of fit between the developer-defined components of a substance abuse prevention intervention and its actual implementation in a given organizational of community setting. In operational terms, it is the rigor with which an intervention adheres to the developer's model.

"Five Steps" Planning
A logical framework and practical process for achieving prevention outcomes. The process is methodical, and ongoing-from needs and assets assessment to capacity building, from program selection to implementation, final evaluation, and, when called for, back to needs and assets assessment again. At every point there are procedures for measurement and evaluation. All are linked to one another and linked conceptually to the underlying factors and conditions of the substance abuse behavior that prompted your concern in the first place. The Five Step Planning process was developed by the DADP for county NNA contracts.

FNL
Friday Night Live, youth-focused prevention organized through chapters in California. Developed in 1984 in Sacramento by the State Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs (ADP) and the California Office of Traffic Safety (OTS), it began as a pilot program dedicated to reducing the number of deaths and injuries caused by teen motorists driving under the influence of alcohol and other drugs. http://www.fridaynightlive.org/

Formative Evaluation
Evaluation that is designed to collect information that can be used for continuous program improvement.

Fortified Alcohol Products
Fortified wines (short dogs) and fortified beers (malt liquor) are products with high alcohol content, often a single being the equivalent of five mixed drinks. These potent, cheap products are commonly associated with markets including lower income, homeless persons, young people, and people of color.

Goal
Goal is the end toward which the program is directed. It is the general statement of a long-range purpose. Goals should directly address needs. Goals are outcome and not process oriented. The clearly state, specific, measurable outcome(s) or change(s) that can be reasonably expected at the conclusion of a methodically selected intervention.

Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA)
Enacted in 1993 to hold federal agencies accountable for achieving program results, it's provisions were phased in over the years and became fully effective in FY 1999. The law places increased emphasis on evaluation and the collection and reporting of performance data, particularly outcome data. The performance reporting requirements of this law may result in the need to request additional data, including client outcome data where appropriate, from funded programs.

Guiding Principles
Recommendations on how to create effective prevention programs. When a community already has a prevention program or strategy in place, the guiding principles can be used to gauge the program's potential effectiveness. They can also be used to design an innovative program/strategy when none of the best practices are appropriate to the community's needs.

Health Communications
The crafting and delivery of messages and strategies, based on consumer research, to promote the health of individuals and communities.

High-Risk Environments
Combinations of settings and circumstances in which ATOD availability poses greater chance for illegal/excessive use and/or problem behaviors related to use. High risk environments can contain problem areas or "hot-spots" for ATOD use.

Host
The human being who uses, or is affected by a disease-causing agent, such as tobacco or alcohol. The host is who ends up with the disease, such as fetal alcohol syndrome, lung cancer, cirrhosis of the liver or other medical problem either through direct use of the agent or through exposure due to use by others. (See "Agent", "Environment", and "Vector")

Hot Spots
Locations within a city or community that are statistically more liable to experience drug and/or alcohol problems. Often charting of incidents through marks on maps allows for easier interpretations of point clusters or concentrations of crime, violence or other problems associated with ATOD abuse.

Impact Evaluation
Achieves the purpose of learning whether the program "works." Impact evaluations, sometimes called "summative" evaluations, are focused on demonstrated program outcomes only (although outcome evaluation is often done in tandem with impact evaluation).

Impacts
Used to refer to long-term program outcomes. The overall effect on the project's larger mission or goals. The "big picture". Results long after the project may have ended.

Incidence
The number of new cases of a disease that occur during a specified period of time in a population at risk for developing the disease.

Indicated Prevention Strategies
Efforts aimed at individuals who may already display signs of substance use/abuse. These types of programs provide intensive programming for individuals in order to prevent the onset of regular or heavy substance abuse. (One of the three IOM prevention strategies: universal, indicated, and selected.)

Individual Community Indicators of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Risk

Data is available for each California county to show a range of information related to ATOD. The information included both the direct consequences of ATOD-affected behaviors as well as data that reflects collateral damage (second-hand consequences for non-users). Located at http://www.adp.state.ca.us/adp_prog.asp; select Community Indicators of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Risk - July 2001

Input
A resource dedicated to or consumed by the program, e.g. staff, materials, equipment, etc.

Internal Evaluation
Evaluation done by existing staff within the same organizational structure as the program.

IOM

Institute of Medicine (See Prevention Program Classification). http://www.iom.edu/

Knowledge Transfer
Those efforts designed to move newly developed as well as underutilized prevention knowledge (i.e., theory, practices, and policies) from the "report stage" following completion of research into practical, useful guidance and application approaches for those working in the field.

Local Control
Local city or county governments have many powers to establish laws and policies about alcohol and tobacco products. Local control refers to this arena of local policymaking.

Local Data
Data that is generated and describes local conditions as opposed to national, regional or state data. Helpful for identifying local needs.

Logic Model
A flowchart or graphic display representing the logical connections between program activities and program goals. A logic model is a description of what a project hopes to achieve and how it expects to achieve it, e.g. "If we do ________then we expect _________to change."

Longitudinal Study
A study in which the investigator selects a group of study individuals and a group of non-intervention individuals and follows up both groups over a specific period of time to compare the incidence of disease (or rate of death from disease) in the two groups. The design may include more than two groups.

Media Advocacy
Community organizing combined with strategic engagement of the media to promote the adoption of public policies. The focus is on collective behavior change, including norms and policies, instead of on individual behavior change. Example: A community coalition calling for the removal of alcohol advertising billboards near schools organizes a protest and press conference that gets widespread local news coverage

Meta-analysis
A study in which the empirical findings from many independent studies are standardized in a way that permits a single summative evaluation of their collective results. This process allows the measures of change or differences between groups to be standardized by controlling for sample size and standard deviation of the changes. In this way, conclusions about the size of effects across many studies can be estimated.

Model Programs
Prevention programs that have been rigorously evaluated and have repeatedly demonstrated positive outcomes.

Monitoring
Monitoring is done for the purpose of documenting program implementation. Monitoring is also sometimes called "process" evaluation, and is usually done for the sole purpose of documenting whether a program is being implemented as planned (e.g., the number of participants, number of hours, type of activities, etc).

Multivariate analysis
A statistical term referring to analyses that involve a number of different variables. For example, an analysis that looked at whether peer factors and individual factors both influence alcohol use would be called "multivariate".

NASADAD
National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors. http://www.nasadad.org/

NPS (National Prevention System)
The NPS is a composite of a myriad of public and private sector organizations having interest, responsibilities, and activities designed to reduce substance abuse in America. The NPS includes Federal, State, and local governments, businesses, national, and local organizations. It involves prevention researchers and providers, both those who are specialists in substance abuse prevention and practitioners from health and social service organizations who may influence substance abuse behavior or its precursors among their clientele. At the local level, community coalitions, civic organizations, youth serving organizations, employers, and parent groups are largely responsible for designing, delivering, and sustaining substance abuse prevention efforts. (see http://www.preventionsystem.org)

NREPP (National Registry of Effective Prevention Programs)
This is a CSAP supported activity to gather nominations of examples of prevention programs that may be reviewed for their scientific merits and effectiveness. Programs discovered to have substantial evidence of scientific merit and effectiveness may be selected as "best and promising practice models" for dissemination and application. (see http://www.samhsa.gov/centers/csap/csap.html)

NCADI
CSAP's National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information acts as the central point within the Federal Government for current print and audiovisual materials about alcohol, tobacco, and other drug problems. http://ncadi.samhsa.gov/default2.aspx

NCAP
National Center for the Advancement of Prevention

Needs Analysis
Needs analysis is a decision-making tool used for resource allocation, program planning, and program development.

Needs Assessment
Activities that include surveys of various targeted populations, assessment of prevention resources within the state, studies of current outcome indicators, geodemographic analyses of social marketing data, and household and school surveys.

Negotiated Net Amount contracts
Over 90% of ADP SAPT prevention funds are allocated to counties through Negotiated Net Amount (NNA) contracts. This allows counties autonomy to determine how their primary prevention funds may most appropriately address the direct service needs within their local jurisdictions. Acceptance and use of NNA funds requires that counties meet specified CSAP research-based prevention concepts.

NIAAA
National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/

NIDA
National Institute on Drug Abuse. http://www.nida.nih.gov/

NNA
"Net negotiated amount", NNA agreements are negotiated each year between the state DADP and county ADP agencies authorized to expend CSAP SAPT prevention block grant funds and DOE "Safe and Drug Free Schools and Community" funds (governor's portion).

NPN
National Prevention Network—a membership organization of state prevention coordinators. http://www.nasadad.org/Departments/Prevention/prevhme1.htm. NPN is a component of NASADAD.

Objective
Objective is a statement of the results to be achieved, and includes a time frame, target of change, specific results to be achieved, method of measuring the results, and criteria for successful achievement. Objectives state results, not activities. Objectives, when accomplished, lead to the goal. Objectives should be stated in ways that describe what you will do and how you will do it. A performance indicator is an example of a program objective.

Off-sale Outlet
An establishment licensed to sell alcohol for consumption outside, but not within its premises. Examples: liquor stores, convenience stores, or supermarkets

OJJDP
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. http://ojjdp.ncjrs.org/

ONDCP
Office of National Drug Control Policy. http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/

On-sale Outlet
On-sale licenses are issued to bars, hotels and restaurants where the customer must consume the beverage on the premises.

ONTRACK Program Resources, Inc.
An organization that serves as a resource to increase knowledge and strengthen strategies of organizations that provide services and programs for individuals and population groups that are traditionally underserved. ONTRACK targets community-based nonprofit organizations, neighborhood groups and public agencies that provide services to improve the health and well being of communities with economic and social disadvantages.

Opportunity Analysis
The process of identifying naturally occurring opportunities for partnering or collaborating on transfer and utilization efforts with other organizations. The object of opportunity analysis is to identify organizations that are already doing, or clearly want to do, work in a mutual area of interest and who have already committed some planning or resources in that direction. The analysis uncovers situations where a transfer agent can easily fit their transfer interest into activities the organization is already engaged in, or is likely to publicize, or disseminate widely.

Optional Indicators
Indicators that are secondary in nature for measuring prevention effectiveness. (See "Core Indicators")

Outcome
Outcome is the change in a person's current and future behavior that can be attributed to program services (e.g., increases in knowledge, changes in attitudes or behavior, etc.). Projects may have Immediate, Intermediate and Long-term Outcomes.

Outcome Evaluation
Achieves the purpose of assessing the immediate changes that are expected for the individuals, organizations, and/or communities involved.

Outcome Indicator

The specific information collected to track a program's success on outcomes. Identifies the characteristic or change that signals that an outcome has been achieved. Is observable and measurable. Usually is expressed as a number and a percent of participants achieving the outcome. (See "Core Indicators")

Outcome Targets
The desired level of achievement of a program on its outcome indicators. Numerical objectives for a program's level of achievement on its outcomes.

Output
The direct product of program operation, e.g. number people, sessions, etc. (generally used in process evaluation, see separate definition)

Participatory Evaluation
Evaluation that involves key stakeholders in the design, data collection, and interpretation of evaluation methods.

Performance Indicators
Target benchmarks that show if a program's goals and objectives are being achieved. Performance indicators can be measured by specific data collected through assessment or survey tools.

POE
See "Principles of Effectiveness"

Preemption (State)
After prohibition, the federal government gave states the power to decide how alcohol and tobacco sales and distribution would be controlled. State preemption refers to instances where the state power supercedes local jurisdictions. State preemption occurs in many issues where state standards are set at less desirable levels than existing local ordinances.

Prevalence
The number of affected persons present in the population at a specific time divided by the number of persons in the population at that time. Prevalence data indicate the amount or predominance of use. These data describe the extent of the problem, and they describe, how much, how many, the average, and the in proportion. Prevalence data are particularly useful for comparisons between groups and for year to year trends. Prevalence is commonly reported in proportions, either a percentage or a rate.

Prevention
Strategies, programs and initiatives which reduce both direct and indirect adverse personal, social, health, and economic consequences resulting from problematic ATOD availability, manufacture, distribution, promotion, sales, and use. The desired result is to promote safe and healthy behaviors and environments for individuals, families, and communities. While there is no single definition of prevention there is general agreement among prevention practitioners on the overall goal of prevention. It is to foster a climate in which:

  • alcohol use is acceptable only for those of legal age and only when the risk of adverse consequences is minimal;
  • prescription and over-the-counter drugs are used only for the purposes for which they were intended;
  • other abusable substances (e.g., gasoline or aerosols) are used only for their intended purposes; and
  • illegal drugs and tobacco are not used at all.

Prevention by Design
Formerly TA-POM (Technical Assistance, Prevention Outcomes Measurements), Prevention by Design is a network of eleven regional trainers spread throughout the state to help county drug and alcohol prevention agencies and contractors develop and operate outcome-oriented AOD prevention programs.

Prevention Education
Involves two-way communication and is distinguished from merely disseminating information by the fact that it's based on an interaction between the educator and the participants. Activities under this strategy aim to affect critical life and social skills, including decision making, refusal skills, and critical analysis (e.g., of media messages). Examples of methods used for this strategy include: classroom and small group sessions; parenting and family management classes; peer leader and peer helper programs; education programs for youth groups; and groups for children of substance abusers.

Prevention/Intervention Program Classification (as defined by the Institute of Medicine - IOM)
A system that can be used as a way to organize prevention/intervention programs and match them to the needs of the targeted populations. According to this classification system, prevention and intervention programs can represent universal, selective, and indicated efforts.

Principles of Effectiveness (POE)
The Principles of Effectiveness are a series of requirements designed to guide the use of funds allocated under Title IV, also known as the Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Community Act. Their purpose is to increase the potential effectiveness of programs and activities funded with the limited Title IV monies available from the U.S. Department of Education. The principles are: Principle 1: Conduct A Needs Assessment; Principle 2: Establish Measurable Objectives/ Performance Measures; Principle 3: Effective Scientifically-Based Programs; Principle 4: Program Evaluation; Principle 5: Parent Involvement.

Problem Statement
Research-based programs are based upon measurable data about the problem being addressed. The problem statement should be a clear, concise description of the problem including information on: Who is most at risk; What is wrong; When, e.g. time span of problem; Where, e.g.. geographic area; How much, size of the problem.

Process Evaluation
Evaluation that is designed to document what programs actually do: program activities, participants, resources, and other outputs. Process evaluation is also sometimes called "monitoring," and is usually done for the sole purpose of documenting whether a program is being implemented as planned.

Problem Identification and Referral
Aims to identify those who have indulged in the illegal use of drugs in order to assess if their behavior can be reversed through education. It should be noted, however, that this strategy does not include any activity designed to determine if an individual is in need of treatment. Examples of methods used for this strategy include the following: driving-while-intoxicated education programs; employee assistance programs; and student assistance programs.

Promising Practices

Strategies, activities, approaches, or programs for which the level of certainty from available evidence is too low to support generalized conclusions, but for which there is some empirical basis for predicting that further research could support such conclusions.

Protective Factors
Conditions that buffer young people from the negative consequences of exposure to risks by either reducing the impact of the risk or changing the way a person responds to the risk. Enhancing protective factors can reduce the likelihood of problem behaviors arising.

PSA
Public Service Announcement, including radio or television public services messages.

Public environments
Publicly-owned places under the jurisdiction of state and local public agencies such as streets, parks, and public buildings

Public Health
The science of 1) preventing disease, 2) prolonging life, 3) promoting health and efficiency through organized community effort and application of public resources.

Public Health Model
An approach that emphasizes the reciprocal relationships and interactions between the host (individual consumer), the agent (alcohol, tobacco or other drug), and the environment (social/physical context of use).

Public Relations
Communication primarily directed toward gaining public understanding and acceptance. Public relations usually deals with issue rather then products or services. Can be used to build goodwill with the public or employees. Example: Tobacco and beer producers publicize donations to charity to improve the company's image in the eyes of its customers and the general public.

Qualitative Data
Information that is reported in narrative form or which is based on narrative information, such as written descriptions of programs, opinions, thoughts, testimonials, and open-ended responses to questions. The answers to these questions are framed by the participant's own words and must not be restricted by a pre-selected set of answers. Qualitative data is generally more time-consuming to analyze than quantitative data.

Quantitative Data
Quantitative data are reported in numerical form. These data can be continuous numbers, ranked scale responses, or quantities of pre-selected answers. Quantitative data can be counted and measured. It is useful for describing concrete phenomenon and for statistical analysis of program results.

Quasi-experimental Design
Research where experimental and control groups are not randomly assigned, or when the intervention has already taken place.

RADAR Network Centers

Affiliated with NCADI, CSAP's Regional Alcohol and Drug Awareness Resource Centers operate in every State and U.S. Territory and perform many of the same services as NCADI while offering state and local resource expertise.

Random Sample
A random sample is a subset of a population where every item in the population has the same probability of being selected into the sample. (see "Sample")

Resiliency Factors
These are factors (e.g., community, environment, family environment, constitutional strengths, personality of the child) that may be taught or instilled in children and can provide some protection to youth at high risk for substance abuse problems. Their impact varies along the developmental process. Examples include: strong bonds with the family; experience of parental monitoring with clear rules of conduct within the family unit and involvement of parents in the lives of their children; success in school performance; strong bonds with pro-social institutions such as the family, school, and religious organizations; and adoption of conventional norms about substance use.

Representative Sample
A representative sample is a sample that accurately portrays the target population in question. Representative samples tend to avoid biases in subsets of the population that could lead to erroneous conclusions about the population. (see "Sample")

Responsible Beverage Service
A general term describing the range or preventive polices and practices for the sale and service of alcohol beverages in off and on sale establishments. These policies are designed to prevent patrons from becoming intoxicated, to ensure that those who are intoxicated are not served and to prevent the sale of alcohol to minors .

Retail environments
Places where alcohol beverages are sold under licenses issued by the California Department of Alcohol Beverage Control (ABC) such as liquor stores, bars, restaurants, and grocery stores. (See on-sales and off-sales.)

RFA
Request for Application. It is a formal announcement of an opportunity to apply for a grant. An RFA specifies the requirements for applying for the grant. RFAs are issued by governments and foundations.

RFP
RFP stands for Request for Proposal. Typically when it necessitates a highly technical product or service, the government may issue a Request for Proposal (RFP). In a typical RFP, the government will request a product or service it needs, and solicit proposals from prospective contractors on how they intend to carry out that request, and at what price. Proposals in response to an RFP can be subject to negotiation after they have been submitted.

Risk Factors
Characteristics, variables, or hazards that, if present for a given individual, make it more likely that this individual, rather than someone selected from the general population, will develop a disorder.

Root Cause
If there is an unwanted situation which consumes resources and tends to happen in a repeated fashion then there is a possibility that it might be beneficial to figure out what is really causing this situation to occur and remove it so the situation does not occur again. This is generally referred to as Root Cause Analysis, finding real cause of the problem and dealing with it rather than simply continuing to deal with the symptoms.

SAMHSA
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. http://www.samhsa.gov/

Sample
A numerically smaller portion of a population selected to be representative of the total population. Samples are used to test hypotheses about the population, describe characteristics of the population, or demonstrate effects of activities conducted upon that population.

SAPST
Substance Abuse Prevention Specialist Training (curriculum developed by the Western CAPT).

Science-Based Information

Hypotheses, activities, and observations that have been substantiated through an analytic process utilizing established criteria for rating research endeavors. Conceptual or exact replications are commonly used to generate credibility and demonstrate effectiveness of findings, principles, and models.

Scientific Research
Systematic, controlled, empirical, and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena.

Scope of Work
The work involved in the definition, design, and production of the components of a project's deliverables. Generally included in funding proposals, it gives details of the goods and/or services that will be provided under a contract.

SDFSCA
Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act. This was signed into federal law in 1994 and is designed to support the goal that all schools have a safe, disciplined, and drug-free environment that is conducive to learning.

Selective Prevention Strategies
These strategies target those who are at greater-than-average risk for substance abuse. The targeted individuals are identified on the basis of the nature and number of risk factors for substance abuse to which they may be exposed. (One of the three IOM prevention strategies: universal, indicated, and selected.)

Settings
Settings are the places in the community, such as bars, restaurants, shopping malls, houses; street corners where ATOD use/abuse occurs. Some settings have a unique location indicated by a street address. Some locations are public, open space, parks, etc. with no specific address, but designated by a geo-reference.

Situational Analysis
A process in which an organization reaches a consensus on a shared vision or programmatic outcome, assesses their capacity and readiness to achieve that vision or outcome, and creates a plan for learning and implementation of a new technology.

Social Bonding
Some studies have shown that young people who establish a positive bond with societal norms and standards are less likely to use alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. The elements of social bonding that prevent ATOD use are: attachment to parents; commitment to school and education; regular involvement in church activities; and belief in the expectations, norms, and values of society, versus bonding with elements that promote or exacerbate ATOD abuse.

Social Capital
Social capital refers to the institutions, relationships, and norms that shape the quality and quantity of a society's social interactions. Increasing evidence shows that social cohesion is critical for societies to prosper economically and for development to be sustainable. Social capital is not just the sum of the institutions which underpin a society —it is the glue that holds them together.

Social Environments
Settings in the community that are not public or retail environments. These settings include homes, workplaces, churches, schools, hospitals and other health and social service facilities, recreational facilities etc.

Social Influence Models
Programs based on the social influence model use interactive teaching techniques, role-playing, discussions, small group activities, and peer-to-peer strategies.

Social Marketing
The application of commercial marketing techniques to communicate about health and social issues. Social marketing focuses on an identified audience—attempting to persuade that audience, mainly through various channels, to adopt an idea, practice, product, or all three. The use of commercial and mass marketing techniques to communicate about health and social issues. The goal is to bring about individual behavior change. Examples: Campaigns that tell us not to drink and drive and public awareness of danger posed by second hand smoke lead to smoke free workplaces and restaurants.

Stakeholders
Stakeholders are individuals or organizations that are directly or indirectly affected by the implementation and results of the programs. Those persons with an interest in the program and its evaluation (e.g., participants, funders, managers, persons not served by the program, community members, etc.).

Strategic Plan
A strategic plan identifies broad categories of services/activities or approaches that are needed to achieve the desired logic model outcomes (e.g., what needs to be done to achieve the logic model outcomes). Strategic plans may be confused with action plans

Strategy
A plan for how to accomplish a goal or objective informed by theory.

Summative Evaluation
Designed to collect information about whether a program is effective in creating intended outcomes.

Surveillance
The ongoing and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of outcome-specific data for use in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health practice.

TA-POM
See Prevention by Design.

Target Population

The audience to which your program and activities are aimed. Often referred to as the primary group of people, the target population includes those who are primarily affected by the issue and among whom you are trying to create change (e.g., drug abusing parents, young children at risk of negative ATOD experience).

Technology Transfer
The systematic process through which skills, techniques, models, and approaches emanating from research are delivered to and applied by practitioners and organizations, including the provision of technical assistance concerning financial, psychological, and organizational challenges to the transfer process.

Theory
A set of interrelated propositions containing concepts that describe, explain, predict, or control behavior.

Theory of Change
The assumptions underlying the program. That is, why and how program activities are expected to lead to the desired outcomes; a series of "if-then" relationships. What evidence supports the assumptions? e.g. research.

Triangulation

The use of multiple data sources and methods to answer the same research question.

Universal Prevention Strategies

Target general population groups without identifying those at particularly high levels of risk. All members of the community benefit from prevention efforts rather than specific individuals or groups within the community. (One of the three IOM prevention strategies: universal, indicated, and selected.)

Vector
A carrier of disease of the cause of disease in humans. A vector can be a biological agent such as a malaria-carrying mosquito, or a product such as a cigarette or alcohol. (See "Agent", "Environment", and "Host")

Vision
A shared picture of the future that a group seeks to create.

WestCAPT
One of six regional centers funded by the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention which includes Alaska, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California, Arizona, Nevada, Montana, Wyoming, Utah, Hawaii, Guam, American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands, and Palau. The purpose of CSAP's Western CAPT is to assist states, jurisdictions, and community-based prevention programs in the Western Region to apply scientifically-defensible strategies in their efforts to prevent substance abuse. http://casat.unr.edu/westcapt/

YLI
Youth Leadership Institute. http://www.yli.org/

YSAPI
National Youth Substance Abuse Prevention Initiative

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Footnotes

1 Canadian Rural Partnership. Asset Mapping: A handbook.
http://www.rural.gc.ca/conference/documents/mapping_e.phtml#1

2 http://dev1.epsb.edmonton.ab.ca/math14_Jim/math9/glossary/default.htm

3 WordNet 2.0. http://www.cogsci.princeton.edu/cgi-bin/webwn?stage=1&word=community

4 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, 2002 Conference Edition, ACHIEVING OUTCOMES: A Practitioner's Guide to Effective Prevention, www.samhsa.gov, 154.

5 ibid, 152.

6 Partners for Substance Abuse Prevention, Resources: Glossary. http://preventionpartners.samhsa.gov/resources_glossary_p2.asp

7 ibid.

8 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, 2002 Conference Edition, ACHIEVING OUTCOMES: A Practitioner's Guide to Effective Prevention, www.samhsa.gov

9 Partners for Substance Abuse Prevention, Resources: Glossary. http://preventionpartners.samhsa.gov/resources_glossary_p2.asp

10 Gordis L, Epidemiology. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 2000, 32

11 Ibid, 131.

12 Partners for Substance Abuse Prevention, http://preventionpartners.samhsa.gov/resources_glossary_p2.asp

13 Gordis, 33.

14 Partners for Substance Abuse Prevention, Resources: Glossary. http://preventionpartners.samhsa.gov/resources_glossary_p2.asp

15 Gene Bellinger, OutSights, Inc. http://www.systems-thinking.org/rca/rootca.htm, 2004.

16 World Bank Group, Poverty Net. http://www.worldbank.org/poverty/scapital/whatsc.htm

17 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (CDC/ATSDR)

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Glossary Resources


California Healthy Kids Survey

CSAP Grant Application for the National CAPT, 2000.

CSAP's Western CAPT web site, http://casat.unr.edu/westcapt/.

"Dissemination of Research-Based Approaches to Prevention: Notes on Issues Needing Attention," Fried Wittman, February 29, 2000.

Getting Results: California Action Guide to Creating Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities (Part I), California Department of Education, Sacramento 1998.

"A Glossary of Commonly Used Alcohol Policy Acronyms, Terms, and Jargon: A Partial List Compiled for the Cal Council 1998 Retreat."

Prevention Primer: an encyclopedia of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug prevention terms, US Department of Health and Human Services, 1993.

"Science-based Practices in Substance Abuse Prevention: A Guide" (draft) CSAP, December 7, 1998.

"Substance Abuse Prevention Specialist Training," CSAP's Western CAPT, 2000.

The Marin Institute website, http://marininstitute.org/

The Marin Institute Action Packs, The Environmental Approach To Community AOD Prevention Action Manual.

Safe and Drug Free Schools and Communities Act http://www.niea.org/HR1TitleIV.pdf Page 572

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