Prevention Science Terminology
The Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control,
the state agency responsible for licensing and
regulation of alcoholic beverages. http://www.abc.ca.gov/
A manager's guide for running the project. It
shows, often through a set of program objectives
and a timeline or task outline, what staff or
others need to do to implement a project (e.g.,
hire outreach worker, launch media campaign, revise
curriculum). Action plans are often confused with
logic models. A logic model on the other hand,
illustrates the changes that occur as a result
of hiring an outreach worker, launching a media
campaign, or using revised curricula. (For example,
trained outreach workers lead to more information
about prevention services in a high-risk neighborhood;
increased contacts with outreach workers leads
to a greater proportion of hard-to-reach clients
coming in for services).
A time-limited task, usually involving direct
experience and participation of a student or students.
Type of service and activities the program provides
to remedy the problem. Includes how much (level
of intensity) and when (frequency).
Alcohol and Drug Programs. The State of California's
Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs' mission
statement is: "To lead California's strategy
to reduce alcohol and other drug problems by developing,
administering, and supporting prevention and treatment
Usually defined as something capable of carrying
disease in humans, such as a pathogen, it can
also mean products that are known to cause disease
in humans, such as alcohol or tobacco. Part of
the epidemiological triad of disease. (See "Host",
"Vector", and "Environment")
A retail business that sells alcohol beverage
to the public or to a select membership. Under
the 21st Amendment, each state has the power to
control the means by which alcohol is made available
to the public. ( See Off-sale & On-sale outlets)
Provides for the participation of target populations
in activities that exclude drug use. The assumption
is that because constructive and healthy activities
offset the attraction to drugs, or otherwise meet
the needs usually filled by drugs, then the population
would avoid using drugs. Examples include: drug-free
social and recreational activities; drug-free
dances and parties; youth and adult leadership
activities; community drop-in centers; community
service activities; and mentoring programs.
Analysis is the process and method of organizing
and interpreting sets of data. This process occurs
with both quantitative and qualitative data. The
results of analysis allow for the comparability
of the data to groups both within and without
the study, as well as, provide information as
to a project's success and areas for modification.
Alcohol and other drugs.
The process of converting information into scientifically
sound, practical procedures that can be used effectively
by prevention practitioners.
Sherry Arnstein, writing in 1969 about citizen
involvement in planning processes in the United
States, described a ladder of participation with
eight steps: 1. Manipulation;
2. Therapy; 3. Informing; 4. Consultation; 5.
Placation; 6. Partnership; 7. Delegated power;
and 8. Citizen Control.
Mapping community assets means: 1) collecting
an inventory of all the good things about your
community; 2) ranking the most valued aspects
of your community; and, 3) discovering the reasons
why people place high value on assets in your
community. Once you have this map of the valued
aspects of your community, you can collectively
strategize about how to build on the assets in
order to sustain and enhance them for future generations.
The process of asset mapping provides a critical
element of community developmentthe engagement
of people in the shaping of their community.
Alcohol, tobacco and other drugs
Access by the community to alcohol, tobacco, and
Blood alcohol content is the amount of alcohol
present in a 100 milliliter (mL) volume of blood.
For example 80 mg is 0.08 grams, 0.08 grams of
alcohol in 100 mLs is written as 0.08%.
Strategies, activities, approaches, or programs
shown through research and evaluation to be effective
at preventing and/or delaying substance abuse.
A sample that is not representative of the population
from which it is taken. This bias often occurs
because the method used to collect the data contains
unwanted influence(s). (see "Sample")
The County Alcohol and Drug Program Administrators
Association of California (CADPAAC) is a non-profit
organization comprised of the designated county
alcohol and drug program administrators representing
the 58 counties within California. http://www.cadpaac.org/
Center for Applied Research, former EMT Group,
Inc. a research and training organization for
public, private, and nonprofit organizations nationwide.
Its focus is primarily clients in the health and
human services, education, and criminal justice
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/
Community Prevention Institute, a technical assistance
and training project funded by the State of California
Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs, intended
to serve California agencies and organizations
involved in community-based prevention. http://www.ca-cpi.org/
Circumstances of ATOD Use
The social occasions in which people are gathered
for some common purpose. Circumstances can also
be called situations and are not bound by a particular
setting or location.
Club Live, the junior high version of Friday Night
Live, brings this exciting youth development program
to 7th and 8th graders. Club Live events and activities
are high energy as well as student led. Club Live
members have the continual opportunity to learn
ways to socialize and have fun in a drug and alcohol
free atmosphere. Activities include assemblies,
noontime events, dances, and community service.
1) a group of people living in a particular local
area ("the team is drawn from all parts of
the community"); 2) a group of people having
ethnic or cultural or religious characteristics
in common ("the Christian community of the
apostolic age"; "he was well known throughout
the Catholic community"); 3) common ownership
("they shared a community of possessions");
4) a group of nations having common interests
("they hoped to join the NATO community");
5) profession, the body of people in a learned
occupation ("the news spread rapidly through
the medical community") 6) community of interests,
agreement as to goals ("the preachers and
the bootleggers found they had a community of
interests") 7) residential district, residential
area, a district where people live; occupied primarily
by private residences; 8) biotic community (ecology)
a group of interdependent organisms inhabiting
the same region and interacting with each other
Community Action Groups
Also known as Community-Based Coalitions, are
nonprofit groups formed to bring about large-scale
prevention efforts in communities. Their success
depends on enlisting others with skills and resources
to achieve their objectives. MADD is a well-known
Performance and outcome indicators that AOD policy
makers use to benchmark the performance of their
community/county in AOD prevention. A substitute
measure for a concept that is not directly observable
or measurable (e.g. prejudice, substance abuse).
For example, an indicator of "substance abuse"
could be "rate of emergency room admissions
for drug overdose." Because of the imperfect
fit between indicators and concepts, it is better
to rely on several indicators rather than just
one when measuring this type of concept.
Correlation is when findings appear to be linked,
or to move up or down at the same time. Caution.
Correlated findings do not mean that one causes
the other. Correlated findings both move together
in the same direction at the same time.
The extent to which the program is serving the
intended target population.
The Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, the
federal agency responsible for alcohol and other
drug prevention initiatives.
Understanding and appreciating the cultural differences
and similarities within, among, and between groups,
including values, norms, traditions, customs,
arts, history, folklore, music, and institutions.
This requires both the willingness and the ability
to draw on community-based values, traditions,
Conditional Use Permit, a local zoning ordinance
that permits local review of proposed alcohol
beverage outlets, with the ability to place preventive
conditions of operation on the use, such as earlier
closing times, lighting, less window advertising,
use of security guards, etc.
A data map is an inventory of the data sources
that inform prevention activities. A data map
is a document that tells you where data can be
obtained, and how the information is available.
Federal Drug Enforcement Administration. http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/
Decoys are minors who attempt to purchase alcohol
or tobacco products while under the supervision
of law enforcement agencies; may result in citations
for sales to minors. The process is called a "compliance
check" or a "sting."
Drug Free Schools and Communities Act.
Disaggregated data break down information into
specific homogenous subsets of the population
in question. Such subsets could include gender,
ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and geographic
location. Each step of disaggregation of data
provides greater and greater detail and specificity
of sub populations, at the cost of generalizability
and sample size.
Dissemination of Information
The dissemination of information is characterized
by one-way communication from the source to the
audience, with limited contact between the two.
Examples of methods used for this strategy include
the following: clearinghouses and other information
resource centers; resource directories; media
campaigns; brochures; radio and television public
service announcements; speaking engagements; and
Federal Department of Education. http://www.ed.gov/index.jhtml
Sphere of activity or affiliation within which
people live, work and socialize (e.g. self, peer,
school, workplace, community, society). (See Prevention
Includes alcohol, tobacco and other drugs such
as marijuana and cocaine.
The improvement in health and safety outcomes
that a prevention strategy can produce in typical
Community based settings.
A measure of the relationship between inputs and
outputs in a prevention strategy. Efficiency goes
beyond effectiveness of a prevention strategy
by attempting to identify the maximum health output
achievable for a set amount of resources.
Evaluation that is designed to support program
participants and staff in self-evaluation of their
own programs (a form of internal evaluation).
Evaluation, Training & Management Inc., an
organization contracted to provide prevention
technical assistance (TA) and training in California.
Now Center for Applied Research Solutions (see
The surroundings in which an agent that causes
disease can proliferate in a host. The environment
can be conducive or hindering to the spread of
disease, and in terms of ATOD use, can include
the cultural, political, historical, economic
and/or social constructs in which ATOD use occurs.
(See "Agent", "Host", and
Seeks to establish or change community standards,
codes, and attitudes, thereby influencing the
incidence and prevalence of drug abuse in the
general population. Examples include: the establishment
and review of drug policies in schools; technical
assistance to communities to maximize local enforcement
procedures governing the availability and distribution
of drugs; the review and modification of alcohol
and tobacco advertising practices; and product
Systematic collection, analysis, and use of program
information for multiple purposes, including monitoring,
program improvement, outcome assessment, planning,
Those which long-term empirical research and evaluation
have documented to be effective in reducing AOD
use or violence (CDE definition).
An experimental design is the structure of a study
that allows the researcher to appropriately analyze
the data with statistical methods to determine
effects of the study. Very often this involves
randomization of subjects into control and treatment
groups, so that the groups are comparable in every
way except for the study's treatment. In this
way, the effect of the study can be measured.
The results obtained from such studies typically
yield the most definitive and defensible evidence
of an intervention's effectiveness. There are
several experimental designs available to a researcher,
other than randomized, including longitudinal
studies, factorial designs, retrospective studies,
and repeated measuresamong others.
Evaluation done by consultants or researchers
not working for the same organization as the program.
Fidelity is the agreement (concordance) of a replicated
program model or strategy to the specifications
of the original. On a continuum of high to low,
where high represents the closest adherence to
the developer's design, it is the degree of fit
between the developer-defined components of a
substance abuse prevention intervention and its
actual implementation in a given organizational
of community setting. In operational terms, it
is the rigor with which an intervention adheres
to the developer's model.
"Five Steps" Planning
A logical framework and practical process for
achieving prevention outcomes. The process is
methodical, and ongoing-from needs and assets
assessment to capacity building, from program
selection to implementation, final evaluation,
and, when called for, back to needs and assets
assessment again. At every point there are procedures
for measurement and evaluation. All are linked
to one another and linked conceptually to the
underlying factors and conditions of the substance
abuse behavior that prompted your concern in the
first place. The Five Step Planning process was
developed by the DADP for county NNA contracts.
Friday Night Live, youth-focused prevention organized
through chapters in California. Developed in 1984
in Sacramento by the State Department of Alcohol
and Drug Programs (ADP) and the California Office
of Traffic Safety (OTS), it began as a pilot program
dedicated to reducing the number of deaths and
injuries caused by teen motorists driving under
the influence of alcohol and other drugs. http://www.fridaynightlive.org/
Evaluation that is designed to collect information
that can be used for continuous program improvement.
Fortified Alcohol Products
Fortified wines (short dogs) and fortified beers
(malt liquor) are products with high alcohol content,
often a single being the equivalent of five mixed
drinks. These potent, cheap products are commonly
associated with markets including lower income,
homeless persons, young people, and people of
Goal is the end toward which the program is directed.
It is the general statement of a long-range purpose.
Goals should directly address needs. Goals are
outcome and not process oriented. The clearly
state, specific, measurable outcome(s) or change(s)
that can be reasonably expected at the conclusion
of a methodically selected intervention.
Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA)
Enacted in 1993 to hold federal agencies accountable
for achieving program results, it's provisions
were phased in over the years and became fully
effective in FY 1999. The law places increased
emphasis on evaluation and the collection and
reporting of performance data, particularly outcome
data. The performance reporting requirements of
this law may result in the need to request additional
data, including client outcome data where appropriate,
from funded programs.
Recommendations on how to create effective prevention
programs. When a community already has a prevention
program or strategy in place, the guiding principles
can be used to gauge the program's potential effectiveness.
They can also be used to design an innovative
program/strategy when none of the best practices
are appropriate to the community's needs.
The crafting and delivery of messages and strategies,
based on consumer research, to promote the health
of individuals and communities.
Combinations of settings and circumstances in
which ATOD availability poses greater chance for
illegal/excessive use and/or problem behaviors
related to use. High risk environments can contain
problem areas or "hot-spots" for ATOD
The human being who uses, or is affected by a
disease-causing agent, such as tobacco or alcohol.
The host is who ends up with the disease, such
as fetal alcohol syndrome, lung cancer, cirrhosis
of the liver or other medical problem either through
direct use of the agent or through exposure due
to use by others. (See "Agent", "Environment",
Locations within a city or community that are
statistically more liable to experience drug and/or
alcohol problems. Often charting of incidents
through marks on maps allows for easier interpretations
of point clusters or concentrations of crime,
violence or other problems associated with ATOD
Achieves the purpose of learning whether the program
"works." Impact evaluations, sometimes
called "summative" evaluations, are
focused on demonstrated program outcomes only
(although outcome evaluation is often done in
tandem with impact evaluation).
Used to refer to long-term program outcomes. The
overall effect on the project's larger mission
or goals. The "big picture". Results
long after the project may have ended.
The number of new cases of a disease that occur
during a specified period of time in a population
at risk for developing the disease.
Indicated Prevention Strategies
Efforts aimed at individuals who may already display
signs of substance use/abuse. These types of programs
provide intensive programming for individuals
in order to prevent the onset of regular or heavy
substance abuse. (One of the three IOM prevention
strategies: universal, indicated, and selected.)
Individual Community Indicators of Alcohol and
Drug Abuse Risk
Data is available for each California county to
show a range of information related to ATOD. The
information included both the direct consequences
of ATOD-affected behaviors as well as data that
reflects collateral damage (second-hand consequences
for non-users). Located at
Community Indicators of Alcohol and Drug Abuse
Risk - July 2001
A resource dedicated to or consumed by the program,
e.g. staff, materials, equipment, etc.
Evaluation done by existing staff within the same
organizational structure as the program.
Institute of Medicine (See Prevention Program
Those efforts designed to move newly developed
as well as underutilized prevention knowledge
(i.e., theory, practices, and policies) from the
"report stage" following completion
of research into practical, useful guidance and
application approaches for those working in the
Local city or county governments have many powers
to establish laws and policies about alcohol and
tobacco products. Local control refers to this
arena of local policymaking.
Data that is generated and describes local conditions
as opposed to national, regional or state data.
Helpful for identifying local needs.
A flowchart or graphic display representing the
logical connections between program activities
and program goals. A logic model is a description
of what a project hopes to achieve and how it
expects to achieve it, e.g. "If we do ________then
we expect _________to change."
A study in which the investigator selects a group
of study individuals and a group of non-intervention
individuals and follows up both groups over a
specific period of time to compare the incidence
of disease (or rate of death from disease) in
the two groups. The design may include more than
Community organizing combined with strategic engagement
of the media to promote the adoption of public
policies. The focus is on collective behavior
change, including norms and policies, instead
of on individual behavior change. Example: A community
coalition calling for the removal of alcohol advertising
billboards near schools organizes a protest and
press conference that gets widespread local news
A study in which the empirical findings from many
independent studies are standardized in a way
that permits a single summative evaluation of
their collective results. This process allows
the measures of change or differences between
groups to be standardized by controlling for sample
size and standard deviation of the changes. In
this way, conclusions about the size of effects
across many studies can be estimated.
Prevention programs that have been rigorously
evaluated and have repeatedly demonstrated positive
Monitoring is done for the purpose of documenting
program implementation. Monitoring is also sometimes
called "process" evaluation, and is
usually done for the sole purpose of documenting
whether a program is being implemented as planned
(e.g., the number of participants, number of hours,
type of activities, etc).
A statistical term referring to analyses that
involve a number of different variables. For example,
an analysis that looked at whether peer factors
and individual factors both influence alcohol
use would be called "multivariate".
National Association of State Alcohol and Drug
Abuse Directors. http://www.nasadad.org/
NPS (National Prevention System)
The NPS is a composite of a myriad of public and
private sector organizations having interest,
responsibilities, and activities designed to reduce
substance abuse in America. The NPS includes Federal,
State, and local governments, businesses, national,
and local organizations. It involves prevention
researchers and providers, both those who are
specialists in substance abuse prevention and
practitioners from health and social service organizations
who may influence substance abuse behavior or
its precursors among their clientele. At the local
level, community coalitions, civic organizations,
youth serving organizations, employers, and parent
groups are largely responsible for designing,
delivering, and sustaining substance abuse prevention
efforts. (see http://www.preventionsystem.org)
NREPP (National Registry of Effective Prevention
This is a CSAP supported activity to gather nominations
of examples of prevention programs that may be
reviewed for their scientific merits and effectiveness.
Programs discovered to have substantial evidence
of scientific merit and effectiveness may be selected
as "best and promising practice models"
for dissemination and application. (see http://www.samhsa.gov/centers/csap/csap.html)
CSAP's National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and
Drug Information acts as the central point within
the Federal Government for current print and audiovisual
materials about alcohol, tobacco, and other drug
National Center for the Advancement of Prevention
Needs analysis is a decision-making tool used
for resource allocation, program planning, and
Activities that include surveys of various targeted
populations, assessment of prevention resources
within the state, studies of current outcome indicators,
geodemographic analyses of social marketing data,
and household and school surveys.
Negotiated Net Amount contracts
Over 90% of ADP SAPT prevention funds are allocated
to counties through Negotiated Net Amount (NNA)
contracts. This allows counties autonomy to determine
how their primary prevention funds may most appropriately
address the direct service needs within their
local jurisdictions. Acceptance and use of NNA
funds requires that counties meet specified CSAP
research-based prevention concepts.
National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.
National Institute on Drug Abuse. http://www.nida.nih.gov/
"Net negotiated amount", NNA agreements
are negotiated each year between the state DADP
and county ADP agencies authorized to expend CSAP
SAPT prevention block grant funds and DOE "Safe
and Drug Free Schools and Community" funds
National Prevention Networka membership
organization of state prevention coordinators.
NPN is a component of NASADAD.
Objective is a statement of the results to be
achieved, and includes a time frame, target of
change, specific results to be achieved, method
of measuring the results, and criteria for successful
achievement. Objectives state results, not activities.
Objectives, when accomplished, lead to the goal.
Objectives should be stated in ways that describe
what you will do and how you will do it. A performance
indicator is an example of a program objective.
An establishment licensed to sell alcohol for
consumption outside, but not within its premises.
Examples: liquor stores, convenience stores, or
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
Office of National Drug Control Policy. http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/
On-sale licenses are issued to bars, hotels and
restaurants where the customer must consume the
beverage on the premises.
ONTRACK Program Resources, Inc.
An organization that serves as a resource to increase
knowledge and strengthen strategies of organizations
that provide services and programs for individuals
and population groups that are traditionally underserved.
ONTRACK targets community-based nonprofit organizations,
neighborhood groups and public agencies that provide
services to improve the health and well being
of communities with economic and social disadvantages.
The process of identifying naturally occurring
opportunities for partnering or collaborating
on transfer and utilization efforts with other
organizations. The object of opportunity analysis
is to identify organizations that are already
doing, or clearly want to do, work in a mutual
area of interest and who have already committed
some planning or resources in that direction.
The analysis uncovers situations where a transfer
agent can easily fit their transfer interest into
activities the organization is already engaged
in, or is likely to publicize, or disseminate
Indicators that are secondary in nature for measuring
prevention effectiveness. (See "Core Indicators")
Outcome is the change in a person's current and
future behavior that can be attributed to program
services (e.g., increases in knowledge, changes
in attitudes or behavior, etc.). Projects may
have Immediate, Intermediate and Long-term Outcomes.
Achieves the purpose of assessing the immediate
changes that are expected for the individuals,
organizations, and/or communities involved.
The specific information collected to track a
program's success on outcomes. Identifies the
characteristic or change that signals that an
outcome has been achieved. Is observable and measurable.
Usually is expressed as a number and a percent
of participants achieving the outcome. (See "Core
The desired level of achievement of a program
on its outcome indicators. Numerical objectives
for a program's level of achievement on its outcomes.
The direct product of program operation, e.g.
number people, sessions, etc. (generally used
in process evaluation, see separate definition)
Evaluation that involves key stakeholders in the
design, data collection, and interpretation of
Target benchmarks that show if a program's goals
and objectives are being achieved. Performance
indicators can be measured by specific data collected
through assessment or survey tools.
See "Principles of Effectiveness"
After prohibition, the federal government gave
states the power to decide how alcohol and tobacco
sales and distribution would be controlled. State
preemption refers to instances where the state
power supercedes local jurisdictions. State preemption
occurs in many issues where state standards are
set at less desirable levels than existing local
The number of affected persons present in the
population at a specific time divided by the number
of persons in the population at that time. Prevalence
data indicate the amount or predominance of use.
These data describe the extent of the problem,
and they describe, how much, how many, the average,
and the in proportion. Prevalence data are particularly
useful for comparisons between groups and for
year to year trends. Prevalence is commonly reported
in proportions, either a percentage or a rate.
Strategies, programs and initiatives which reduce
both direct and indirect adverse personal, social,
health, and economic consequences resulting from
problematic ATOD availability, manufacture, distribution,
promotion, sales, and use. The desired result
is to promote safe and healthy behaviors and environments
for individuals, families, and communities. While
there is no single definition of prevention there
is general agreement among prevention practitioners
on the overall goal of prevention. It is to foster
a climate in which:
- alcohol use is acceptable only for those of
legal age and only when the risk of adverse
consequences is minimal;
- prescription and over-the-counter drugs are
used only for the purposes for which they were
- other abusable substances (e.g., gasoline
or aerosols) are used only for their intended
- illegal drugs and tobacco are not used at
Prevention by Design
Formerly TA-POM (Technical Assistance, Prevention
Outcomes Measurements), Prevention by Design is
a network of eleven regional trainers spread throughout
the state to help county drug and alcohol prevention
agencies and contractors develop and operate outcome-oriented
AOD prevention programs.
Involves two-way communication and is distinguished
from merely disseminating information by the fact
that it's based on an interaction between the
educator and the participants. Activities under
this strategy aim to affect critical life and
social skills, including decision making, refusal
skills, and critical analysis (e.g., of media
messages). Examples of methods used for this strategy
include: classroom and small group sessions; parenting
and family management classes; peer leader and
peer helper programs; education programs for youth
groups; and groups for children of substance abusers.
Prevention/Intervention Program Classification
(as defined by the Institute of Medicine - IOM)
A system that can be used as a way to organize
prevention/intervention programs and match them
to the needs of the targeted populations. According
to this classification system, prevention and
intervention programs can represent universal,
selective, and indicated efforts.
Principles of Effectiveness (POE)
The Principles of Effectiveness are a series of
requirements designed to guide the use of funds
allocated under Title IV, also known as the Safe
and Drug-Free Schools and Community Act. Their
purpose is to increase the potential effectiveness
of programs and activities funded with the limited
Title IV monies available from the U.S. Department
of Education. The principles are: Principle 1:
Conduct A Needs Assessment; Principle 2: Establish
Measurable Objectives/ Performance Measures; Principle
3: Effective Scientifically-Based Programs; Principle
4: Program Evaluation; Principle 5: Parent Involvement.
Research-based programs are based upon measurable
data about the problem being addressed. The problem
statement should be a clear, concise description
of the problem including information on: Who is
most at risk; What is wrong; When, e.g. time span
of problem; Where, e.g.. geographic area; How
much, size of the problem.
Evaluation that is designed to document what programs
actually do: program activities, participants,
resources, and other outputs. Process evaluation
is also sometimes called "monitoring,"
and is usually done for the sole purpose of documenting
whether a program is being implemented as planned.
Problem Identification and Referral
Aims to identify those who have indulged in the
illegal use of drugs in order to assess if their
behavior can be reversed through education. It
should be noted, however, that this strategy does
not include any activity designed to determine
if an individual is in need of treatment. Examples
of methods used for this strategy include the
following: driving-while-intoxicated education
programs; employee assistance programs; and student
Strategies, activities, approaches, or programs
for which the level of certainty from available
evidence is too low to support generalized conclusions,
but for which there is some empirical basis for
predicting that further research could support
Conditions that buffer young people from the negative
consequences of exposure to risks by either reducing
the impact of the risk or changing the way a person
responds to the risk. Enhancing protective factors
can reduce the likelihood of problem behaviors
Public Service Announcement, including radio or
television public services messages.
Publicly-owned places under the jurisdiction of
state and local public agencies such as streets,
parks, and public buildings
The science of 1) preventing disease, 2) prolonging
life, 3) promoting health and efficiency through
organized community effort and application of
Public Health Model
An approach that emphasizes the reciprocal relationships
and interactions between the host (individual
consumer), the agent (alcohol, tobacco or other
drug), and the environment (social/physical context
Communication primarily directed toward gaining
public understanding and acceptance. Public relations
usually deals with issue rather then products
or services. Can be used to build goodwill with
the public or employees. Example: Tobacco and
beer producers publicize donations to charity
to improve the company's image in the eyes of
its customers and the general public.
Information that is reported in narrative form
or which is based on narrative information, such
as written descriptions of programs, opinions,
thoughts, testimonials, and open-ended responses
to questions. The answers to these questions are
framed by the participant's own words and must
not be restricted by a pre-selected set of answers.
Qualitative data is generally more time-consuming
to analyze than quantitative data.
Quantitative data are reported in numerical form.
These data can be continuous numbers, ranked scale
responses, or quantities of pre-selected answers.
Quantitative data can be counted and measured.
It is useful for describing concrete phenomenon
and for statistical analysis of program results.
Research where experimental and control groups
are not randomly assigned, or when the intervention
has already taken place.
RADAR Network Centers
Affiliated with NCADI, CSAP's Regional Alcohol
and Drug Awareness Resource Centers operate in
every State and U.S. Territory and perform many
of the same services as NCADI while offering state
and local resource expertise.
A random sample is a subset of a population where
every item in the population has the same probability
of being selected into the sample. (see "Sample")
These are factors (e.g., community, environment,
family environment, constitutional strengths,
personality of the child) that may be taught or
instilled in children and can provide some protection
to youth at high risk for substance abuse problems.
Their impact varies along the developmental process.
Examples include: strong bonds with the family;
experience of parental monitoring with clear rules
of conduct within the family unit and involvement
of parents in the lives of their children; success
in school performance; strong bonds with pro-social
institutions such as the family, school, and religious
organizations; and adoption of conventional norms
about substance use.
A representative sample is a sample that accurately
portrays the target population in question. Representative
samples tend to avoid biases in subsets of the
population that could lead to erroneous conclusions
about the population. (see "Sample")
Responsible Beverage Service
A general term describing the range or preventive
polices and practices for the sale and service
of alcohol beverages in off and on sale establishments.
These policies are designed to prevent patrons
from becoming intoxicated, to ensure that those
who are intoxicated are not served and to prevent
the sale of alcohol to minors .
Places where alcohol beverages are sold under
licenses issued by the California Department of
Alcohol Beverage Control (ABC) such as liquor
stores, bars, restaurants, and grocery stores.
(See on-sales and off-sales.)
Request for Application. It is a formal announcement
of an opportunity to apply for a grant. An RFA
specifies the requirements for applying for the
grant. RFAs are issued by governments and foundations.
RFP stands for Request for Proposal. Typically
when it necessitates a highly technical product
or service, the government may issue a Request
for Proposal (RFP). In a typical RFP, the government
will request a product or service it needs, and
solicit proposals from prospective contractors
on how they intend to carry out that request,
and at what price. Proposals in response to an
RFP can be subject to negotiation after they have
Characteristics, variables, or hazards that, if
present for a given individual, make it more likely
that this individual, rather than someone selected
from the general population, will develop a disorder.
If there is an unwanted situation which consumes
resources and tends to happen in a repeated fashion
then there is a possibility that it might be beneficial
to figure out what is really causing this situation
to occur and remove it so the situation does not
occur again. This is generally referred to as
Root Cause Analysis, finding real cause of the
problem and dealing with it rather than simply
continuing to deal with the symptoms.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
A numerically smaller portion of a population
selected to be representative of the total population.
Samples are used to test hypotheses about the
population, describe characteristics of the population,
or demonstrate effects of activities conducted
upon that population.
Substance Abuse Prevention Specialist Training
(curriculum developed by the Western CAPT).
Hypotheses, activities, and observations that
have been substantiated through an analytic process
utilizing established criteria for rating research
endeavors. Conceptual or exact replications are
commonly used to generate credibility and demonstrate
effectiveness of findings, principles, and models.
Systematic, controlled, empirical, and critical
investigation of hypothetical propositions about
the presumed relations among natural phenomena.
Scope of Work
The work involved in the definition, design, and
production of the components of a project's deliverables.
Generally included in funding proposals, it gives
details of the goods and/or services that will
be provided under a contract.
Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act.
This was signed into federal law in 1994 and is
designed to support the goal that all schools
have a safe, disciplined, and drug-free environment
that is conducive to learning.
Selective Prevention Strategies
These strategies target those who are at greater-than-average
risk for substance abuse. The targeted individuals
are identified on the basis of the nature and
number of risk factors for substance abuse to
which they may be exposed. (One of the three IOM
prevention strategies: universal, indicated, and
Settings are the places in the community, such
as bars, restaurants, shopping malls, houses;
street corners where ATOD use/abuse occurs. Some
settings have a unique location indicated by a
street address. Some locations are public, open
space, parks, etc. with no specific address, but
designated by a geo-reference.
A process in which an organization reaches a consensus
on a shared vision or programmatic outcome, assesses
their capacity and readiness to achieve that vision
or outcome, and creates a plan for learning and
implementation of a new technology.
Some studies have shown that young people who
establish a positive bond with societal norms
and standards are less likely to use alcohol,
tobacco and other drugs. The elements of social
bonding that prevent ATOD use are: attachment
to parents; commitment to school and education;
regular involvement in church activities; and
belief in the expectations, norms, and values
of society, versus bonding with elements that
promote or exacerbate ATOD abuse.
Social capital refers to the institutions, relationships,
and norms that shape the quality and quantity
of a society's social interactions. Increasing
evidence shows that social cohesion is critical
for societies to prosper economically and for
development to be sustainable. Social capital
is not just the sum of the institutions which
underpin a society it is the glue that holds
Settings in the community that are not public
or retail environments. These settings include
homes, workplaces, churches, schools, hospitals
and other health and social service facilities,
recreational facilities etc.
Social Influence Models
Programs based on the social influence model use
interactive teaching techniques, role-playing,
discussions, small group activities, and peer-to-peer
The application of commercial marketing techniques
to communicate about health and social issues.
Social marketing focuses on an identified audienceattempting
to persuade that audience, mainly through various
channels, to adopt an idea, practice, product,
or all three. The use of commercial and mass marketing
techniques to communicate about health and social
issues. The goal is to bring about individual
behavior change. Examples: Campaigns that tell
us not to drink and drive and public awareness
of danger posed by second hand smoke lead to smoke
free workplaces and restaurants.
Stakeholders are individuals or organizations
that are directly or indirectly affected by the
implementation and results of the programs. Those
persons with an interest in the program and its
evaluation (e.g., participants, funders, managers,
persons not served by the program, community members,
A strategic plan identifies broad categories of
services/activities or approaches that are needed
to achieve the desired logic model outcomes (e.g.,
what needs to be done to achieve the logic model
outcomes). Strategic plans may be confused with
A plan for how to accomplish a goal or objective
informed by theory.
Designed to collect information about whether
a program is effective in creating intended outcomes.
The ongoing and systematic collection, analysis,
and interpretation of outcome-specific data for
use in the planning, implementation, and evaluation
of public health practice.
See Prevention by Design.
The audience to which your program and activities
are aimed. Often referred to as the primary group
of people, the target population includes those
who are primarily affected by the issue and among
whom you are trying to create change (e.g., drug
abusing parents, young children at risk of negative
The systematic process through which skills, techniques,
models, and approaches emanating from research
are delivered to and applied by practitioners
and organizations, including the provision of
technical assistance concerning financial, psychological,
and organizational challenges to the transfer
A set of interrelated propositions containing
concepts that describe, explain, predict, or control
Theory of Change
The assumptions underlying the program. That is,
why and how program activities are expected to
lead to the desired outcomes; a series of "if-then"
relationships. What evidence supports the assumptions?
The use of multiple data sources and methods to
answer the same research question.
Universal Prevention Strategies
Target general population groups without identifying
those at particularly high levels of risk. All
members of the community benefit from prevention
efforts rather than specific individuals or groups
within the community. (One of the three IOM prevention
strategies: universal, indicated, and selected.)
A carrier of disease of the cause of disease in
humans. A vector can be a biological agent such
as a malaria-carrying mosquito, or a product such
as a cigarette or alcohol. (See "Agent",
"Environment", and "Host")
A shared picture of the future that a group seeks
One of six regional centers funded by the Center
for Substance Abuse Prevention which includes
Alaska, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California,
Arizona, Nevada, Montana, Wyoming, Utah, Hawaii,
Guam, American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern
Mariana Islands, Federated States of Micronesia,
Marshall Islands, and Palau. The purpose of CSAP's
Western CAPT is to assist states, jurisdictions,
and community-based prevention programs in the
Western Region to apply scientifically-defensible
strategies in their efforts to prevent substance
Youth Leadership Institute. http://www.yli.org/
National Youth Substance Abuse Prevention Initiative
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1 Canadian Rural Partnership. Asset Mapping: A
3 WordNet 2.0. http://www.cogsci.princeton.edu/cgi-bin/webwn?stage=1&word=community
4 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration,
Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, 2002 Conference
Edition, ACHIEVING OUTCOMES: A Practitioner's
Guide to Effective Prevention, www.samhsa.gov,
5 ibid, 152.
6 Partners for Substance Abuse Prevention, Resources:
8 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration,
Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, 2002 Conference
Edition, ACHIEVING OUTCOMES: A Practitioner's
Guide to Effective Prevention, www.samhsa.gov
9 Partners for Substance Abuse Prevention, Resources:
10 Gordis L, Epidemiology. Philadelphia: W.B.
Saunders Company, 2000, 32
11 Ibid, 131.
12 Partners for Substance Abuse Prevention, http://preventionpartners.samhsa.gov/resources_glossary_p2.asp
13 Gordis, 33.
14 Partners for Substance Abuse Prevention, Resources:
15 Gene Bellinger, OutSights, Inc. http://www.systems-thinking.org/rca/rootca.htm,
16 World Bank Group, Poverty Net. http://www.worldbank.org/poverty/scapital/whatsc.htm
17 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease
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California Healthy Kids Survey
CSAP Grant Application for the National CAPT,
CSAP's Western CAPT web site, http://casat.unr.edu/westcapt/.
"Dissemination of Research-Based Approaches
to Prevention: Notes on Issues Needing Attention,"
Fried Wittman, February 29, 2000.
Getting Results: California Action Guide to
Creating Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities
(Part I), California Department of Education,
"A Glossary of Commonly Used Alcohol Policy
Acronyms, Terms, and Jargon: A Partial List Compiled
for the Cal Council 1998 Retreat."
Prevention Primer: an encyclopedia of alcohol,
tobacco, and other drug prevention terms,
US Department of Health and Human Services, 1993.
"Science-based Practices in Substance Abuse
Prevention: A Guide" (draft) CSAP, December
"Substance Abuse Prevention Specialist Training,"
CSAP's Western CAPT, 2000.
The Marin Institute website, http://marininstitute.org/
The Marin Institute Action Packs, The Environmental
Approach To Community AOD Prevention Action Manual.
Safe and Drug Free Schools and Communities Act
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