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Technical Details about GreekKeys Unicode 2008

Problems of Unicode

The Problem of Precomposed vs. Decomposed

Ancient Greek as used by scholars in modern printing and word-processing employs not only the plain letters of the Greek alphabet, but also letters that have been modified by diacritic or editorial marks of various kinds, such a breathing signs, accents, diaeresis, macron or breve symbol, and sublinear dot. Theoretically, if you want an omega with rough breathing, this is represented by two characters: U+03c9 (lowercase omega) and U+0314 (combining rough breathing). A combining character has no width of its own, but places itself in the same space as the previously entered character. Similarly, if you want a dotted lowercase beta, then this needs to be entered as two codepoints, U+03b2 (the beta) and U+0323 (the combining dot below diacritic). Or, if you want alpha with macron and smooth breathing and acute accent, this entails four Unicode characters: U+03b1 (alpha), U+0304 (combining macron), U+0313 (combining smooth breathing), U+0301 (combining acute accent). All of these are examples of composition of a complex character from several code points; such input is called decomposed. If you actually enter these codepoints with many fonts and applications, the result may be unattractive: the breathing might not be centered over the omega; the dot might not be centered under the beta or might intersect the descender; the diacritics over the alpha might overlap or be stacked vertically; in some fonts a diacritics may even appear incorrectly in its own space after the letter.

The solution to this difficulty is the definition of precomposed complex characters in Unicode, as an interim measure until decomposed representation is better supported. Unfortunately, only the first example, omega with rough breathing, is recognized in the Unicode standard: the code point U+1f61 supplies this precomposed character. For the other two, the choice is between assigning a Private Use Area (PUA) code point to the precomposed character (which entails that there may be conflicts in the code point selected and that most fonts will lack that character anyway) or trying to work with the decomposed input. Currently, maximum cross-platform compatibility and compatibility with users who do not have the very latest software suggests the continued use of PUA code points. But decomposed input can provide good-looking input if used with a modern font that contains additional information about "ligatures" (the substitution of a single well-designed glyph for the combination of two or more code points) and the needed precomposed glyphs.

Because of the differences between Windows and Mac OS X, it has not been possible to make the keyboarding of the more specialized characters completely consistent. Nevertheless, if a Windows user follows the deadkey method with GreekKeys 2008, the input will be identical to what is produced by a Mac user for all the routine polytonic Greek combinations. Only the more complex combinations involving macron and breve plus other diacritics pose problems, since they cannot be handled in the same way in both keyboards. With Windows keyboard, alpha with macron and smooth and acute has to be input as a series of decomposed code points (if you use a font with the needed OpenType feature definitions, such as are found in GreekKeys 2008 Unicode fonts). In Mac OS X, the same combination is entered as a PUA code point (unless you make use of the experimental decomposed input instead of the regular GreekKeys Unicode input). If you are going to work cross-platform with specialized characters, please read Appendix III about compatibility issues and workarounds.

The Problem of Duplicate Code Points

Because at an early stage the Unicode standard provided only for monotonic Greek and the characters for polytonic Greek were added later, the current standard contains duplication of a number of characters on the now-abandoned assumption that the tonos printed on modern Greek vowels is distinct from the acute accent printed on ancient Greek vowels. (There have in fact been some fonts that make these two accents appear slightly differently.) This is now a deprecated distinction, and it is recommended that the duplicate characters be unified under the code point in the Greek block and that the duplicate code points in Greek Extended not be used. When consistency of typography really matters, it is advisable to avoid the use for Greek of fonts in which there is a visible difference; for instance, an older version of Apple's Lucida Grande had a significant difference between tonos and acute, the version in 10.4 still had a slight difference, but in 10.5 there is no difference. Many older Microsoft fonts show a difference between tonos and acute, but newer versions do not. Similarly, punctuation symbols have been unified, so that use of the specifically Greek middle dot and Greek question mark are now deprecated, with the standard code points in the first two blocks of Unicode preferred. In the GreekKeys fonts, the glyphs used for these two code points have always been identical in appearance. The GreekKeys Unicode inputs in GreekKeys 2005 and 2008 both use the recommended codepoints for the accented letters and the semicolon/question mark, but the Greek colon/middle dot was still input as U+0387 in GreekKeys 2005 while it is input as U+00b7 in GreekKeys 2008. Again, the glyphs have the same appearance.

Character Duplicate Code Point: deprecated Preferred Code Point
lowercase alpha + acute 1F71 03AC
uppercase alpha + acute 1FBB 0386
lowercase epsilon + acute 1F73 03AD
uppercase epsilon + acute 1FC9 0388
lowercase eta + acute 1F75 03AE
uppercase eta + acute 1FCB 0389
lowercase iota + acute 1F77 03AF
uppercase iota + acute 1FDB 038A
lowercase omicron + acute 1F79 03CC
uppercase omicron + acute 1FF9 038C
lowercase upsilon + acute 1F7B 03CD
uppercase upsilon + acute 1FEB 038E
lowercase omega + acute 1F7D 03CE
uppercase omega + acute 1FFB 038F
lowercase iota + diaeresis + acute 1FD3 0390
lowercase upsilon + diaeresis + acute 1FE3 03B0
Greek question mark (Latin semicolon) 037E 003B
Greek colon or high dot (Latin middle dot) 0387 00B7
Greek combining diaeresis with tonos/acute 0344 0308 + 0301

Alternative Methods of Keyboarding Unicode

Having a font with the needed characters encoded as Unicode is only half of the battle for users. The other half is having a convenient means to type the needed characters, one that will operate at a systemwide level and thus be available in all modern applications. GreekKeys 2008 provides such a means for Windows as well as for Mac OS X (whereas GreekKeys 2005 was for Mac only). This is an advance, but there will still be some areas of cross-platform discrepancies that the user of specialized characters will need to be aware of, and there may be many code points of interest that are not accessible on either the regular GreekKeys Unicode keyboard or the GreekKeys Unicode symbol keyboards. Thus, it is important to know about the other resources built into the OSes and applications for dealing with Unicode code points not provided for by standard keyboards.

Additional Ways to Input Unicode in Windows

(1) In MS Word (from at least the 2002 version forward) you can enter any character for which you know the Unicode hex code point by entering the four or five hexadecimal digits and then pressing ALT-x. The digits will then convert to the character you want. Of course, you need to know the code point to do this.

(2) There is a System Tool (Programs:Accessories:System Tools) called Character Map. This is a small application displaying the characters in a font in Unicode code point order. First set the font, and then select a character, and click the Copy button so that you can paste it into a document of your choice. If you know the code point, you can enable Advanced View and enter the code point to locate the character in the table. Character Map has limitations: SMP (five-digit) code points are not available for selection under either XP or Vista; under XP this utility shows only the BMP (four-digit) code points that were present in Unicode 4.0, and ignores Unicode 4.1 and 5.0 and pipeline characters that may actually be present in the font; under Vista, however, it shows all BMP code points present in the selected font, including pipeline characters.

(3) Both Word and OpenOffice Writer have menu commands for inserting unusual characters. OpenOffice has the superior functionality (tested January 2008 with version 2.3.1). The command is under the Insert menu and is called Special Characters…. Set the font to New Athena Unicode. The table of characters in OpenOffice will then show all the BMP and SMP code points present in the font. Click on as many characters as you want and the string of characters will be shown at the bottom of the window; when you click OK, the string is inserted in the document and the Special Characters window closes. [This is not consistent: on one of the two XP machines I tested the window showed the presence of SMP code points but only with empty squares in place of the actual characters, and if these are inserted in the document, the squares cannot be changed by changing the font. With Vista there is perhaps no problem.]

In Word the command is Symbol… under the Insert menu. With Word 2003 under XP, this command has the same limitation to the ranges of BMP characters present in Unicode 4.0 as the Windows Character Map (but under Vista this will show later additions that are within those 4.0 blocks, such as archaic heta). Thus, Coptic, for instance, is not visible. There is, however, a field in which you can enter a BMP code point for the characters that are not displayed, and it will then temporarily show the character in the first position in the table (not in its Unicode order), and it is thus possible to insert it into the document. In Word 2003 the Insert Symbol… command cannot deal with SMP characters. In Word 2007, however, Insert Symbol… does show all the characters present in the font, at least on one computer running XP. Because of the inconsistency of various versions of Windows and Word, some users may encounter results different from those described here.

Additional Ways to Input Unicode in Mac OS X

The Character Palette can be activated in System Preferences: International: Input Menu. (Or for 10.6 and later, the name has been changed to Character Viewer, and the location for activation also has new terminology: System Preference: Languages & Text: Input Sources.) If you know the Unicode code point for a character or symbol you want that is not directly accessible from the GreekKeys Unicode input, you can locate it there by searching for that string and (in most cases) insert it in a document. You can also search by part of the character's name, if you know how it is described in Unicode. If you do not know the name or code point of the character, bu tonly its appearance.you can scan the codes tables, but this may be quite inefficient.

picture of Mac OS X character palette

Another way to enter a character when you know the Unicode code point is to use the Unicode Hex input that comes with OS X. Activate this input in System Preferences: International: Input Menu. To use it in a document, change to Unicode Hex in the input menu, and then hold down the option key while typing the four hexadecimal digits of any BMP code point. (You cannot enter SMP (five-digit) code points with Unicode Hex.) When you do not use the option key, Unicode Hex behaves like a US English input.

Characters in the font New Athena Unicode

For a complete list of characters and code points in New Athena Unicode font, see the document NAUcmap3_2.pdf in the folder Unicode Fonts of the GreekKeys 2008 package. Or go to the font download page to obtain the text version of this document corresponding to the latest revision of the font.

Private Use Area Code Points in APA Unicode Fonts

A consortium of scholarly font producers who work with Unicode polytonic Greek has agreed to use the same Private Use Area (PUA) code points to refer to special characters that are not recognized by Unicode (and most of which are not likely ever to receive official Unicode code points). See the proposal document written by Juan-José Marcos that is downloadable from the GreekKeys support site. In addition to the APA Unicode fonts, this convention is followed in the fonts of Ralph Hancock’s Antioch package, in Juan-José Marcos’ ALPHABETUM, and in David Perry’s Cardo. Because of this agreement, users should be able to shift between the various fonts that comply with this convention. System fonts and commercial fonts will not contain these characters and may contain conflicting characters that use the same PUA code points. Users should be aware that documents containing these PUA characters may not be completely readable for other users who lack a necessary font or for publishers.

A paper by Juan-José Marcos setting forth the proposal for this agreement is available here with his permission: PUA_coordination_usage.pdf.

Here are two tables, the first with the characters grouped alphabetically by base character, the second with the same data ordered instead by PUA code point. If the character name is capitalized, the reference is to the capital letter.

description decomposed Unicode alternative ( full) decomposition PUA code point adopted
alpha with breve and acute 1fb0 0301 03b1 0306 0301 eb0a
alpha with breve and grave 1fb0 0300 03b1 0306 0300 eaf8
alpha with breve and rough 1fb0 0314 03b1 0306 0314 eb0b
alpha with breve and rough acute 1fb0 0314 0301 03b1 0306 0314 0301 eafb
alpha with breve and rough grave 1fb0 0314 0300 03b1 0306 0314 0300 eafc
alpha with breve and smooth 1fb0 0313 03b1 0306 0313 eaf9
alpha with breve and smooth acute 1fb0 0313 0301 03b1 0306 0313 0301 eb0c
alpha with breve and smooth grave 1fb0 0313 0300 03b1 0306 0313 0300 eafa
alpha with macron and acute 1fb1 0301 03b1 0304 0301 eb00
alpha with macron and circumflex 1fb1 0342 03b1 0304 0342 eaf2
alpha with macron and grave 1fb1 0300 03b1 0304 0300 eaf0
alpha with macron and rough 1fb1 0314 03b1 0304 0314 eb05
alpha with macron and rough acute 1fb1 0314 0301 03b1 0304 0314 0301 eb09
alpha with macron and rough circumflex 1fb1 0314 0342 03b1 0304 0314 0342 eaf6
alpha with macron and rough grave 1fb1 0314 0300 03b1 0304 0314 0300 eaf4
alpha with macron and smooth 1fb1 0313 03b1 0304 0313 eb04
alpha with macron and smooth acute 1fb1 0313 0301 03b1 0304 0313 0301 eb07
alpha with macron and smooth circumflex 1fb1 0313 0342 03b1 0304 0313 0342 eaf5
alpha with macron and smooth grave 1fb1 0313 0300 03b1 0304 0313 0300 eaf3
epsilon with breve 03b5 0306 e1a9
Epsilon with breve 0395 0306 e1bf
epsilon with circumflex 03b5 0342 e1b0
epsilon with macron 03b5 0304 e1b3
Epsilon with macron 0395 0304 e1be
epsilon with macron and acute 03b5 0304 0301 e1b4
epsilon with macron and circumflex 03b5 0304 0342 eb27
epsilon with macron and grave 03b5 0304 0300 e1b5
epsilon with macron and rough 03b5 0304 0314 e1b7
epsilon with macron and rough circumflex 03b5 0304 0314 0342 eb21
epsilon with macron and rough grave 03b5 0304 0314 0300 e1b9
epsilon with macron and smooth 03b5 0304 0313 e1b6
epsilon with macron and smooth acute 03b5 0304 0313 0301 e1ba
epsilon with macron and smooth circumflex 03b5 0304 0313 0342 eb20
epsilon with macron and smooth grave 03b5 0304 0313 0300 e1b8
epsilon with macron rough acute 03b5 0304 0314 0301 e1bb
epsilon with rough circumflex 03b5 0314 0342 e1b2
Epsilon with rough circumflex 0395 0314 0342 e1bd
epsilon with smooth circumflex 03b5 0313 0342 e1b1
Epsilon with smooth circumflex 0395 0313 0342 e1bc
iota with breve and acute 1fd0 0301 03b9 0306 0301 eb40
iota with breve and grave 1fd0 0300 03b9 0306 0300 eb44
iota with breve and rough 1fd0 0314 03b9 0306 0314 eb43
iota with breve and rough acute 1fd0 0314 0301 03b9 0306 0314 0301 eb47
iota with breve and rough grave 1fd0 0314 0300 03b9 0306 0314 0300 eb48
iota with breve and smooth 1fd0 0313 03b9 0306 0313 eb41
iota with breve and smooth acute 1fd0 0313 0301 03b9 0306 0313 0301 eb42
iota with breve and smooth grave 1fd0 0313 0300 03b9 0306 0313 0300 eb45
iota with macron and acute 1fd1 0301 03b9 0304 0301 eb39
iota with macron and circumflex 1fd1 0342 03b9 0304 0342 eb36
iota with macron and grave 1fd1 0300 03b9 0304 0300 eb38
iota with macron and rough 1fd1 0314 03b9 0304 0314 eb3e
iota with macron and rough acute 1fd1 0314 0301 03b9 0304 0314 0301 eb3f
iota with macron and rough circumflex 1fd1 0314 0342 03b9 0304 0314 0342 eb58
iota with macron and rough grave 1fd1 0314 0300 03b9 0304 0314 0300 eb55
iota with macron and smooth 1fd1 0313 03b9 0304 0313 eb3c
iota with macron and smooth acute 1fd1 0313 0301 03b9 0304 0313 0301 eb3d
iota with macron and smooth circumflex 1fd1 0313 0342 03b9 0304 0313 0342 eb57
iota with macron and smooth grave 1fd1 0313 0300 03b9 0304 0313 0300 eb54
omicron with breve 03bf 0306 e1aa
Omicron with breve 039f 0306 e1cf
omicron with circumflex 03bf 0342 e1c0
omicron with macron 03bf 0304 e1c3
Omicron with macron 039f 0304 e1ce
omicron with macron and acute 03bf 0304 0301 e1c4
omicron with macron and circumflex 03bf 0304 0342 eb5a
omicron with macron and grave 03bf 0304 0300 e1c5
omicron with macron and rough 03bf 0304 0314 e1c7
omicron with macron and rough acute 03bf 0304 0314 0301 e1cb
omicron with macron and rough circumflex 03bf 0304 0314 0342 eb5c
omicron with macron and rough grave 03bf 0304 0314 0300 e1c9
omicron with macron and smooth 03bf 0304 0313 e1c6
omicron with macron and smooth acute 03bf 0304 0313 0301 e1ca
omicron with macron and smooth circumflex 03bf 0304 0313 0342 eb5b
omicron with macron and smooth grave 03bf 0304 0313 0300 e1c8
Omicron with rough circumflex 039f 0314 0342 e1cd
omicron with rough circumflex 03bf 0314 0342 e1c2
Omicron with smooth circumflex 039f 0313 0342 e1cc
omicron with smooth circumflex 03bf 0313 0342 e1c1
Rho with smooth 03a1 0313 e1ab
upsilon with breve and acute 1fe0 0301 03c5 0306 0301 eb81
upsilon with breve and grave 1fe0 0300 03c5 0306 0300 eb83
upsilon with breve and rough 1fe0 0314 03c5 0306 0314 eb82
upsilon with breve and rough acute 1fe0 0314 0301 03c5 0306 0314 0301 eb89
upsilon with breve and rough grave 1fe0 0314 0300 03c5 0306 0314 0300 eb8a
upsilon with breve and smooth 1fe0 0313 03c5 0306 0313 eb84
upsilon with breve and smooth acute 1fe0 0313 0301 03c5 0306 0313 0301 eb85
upsilon with breve and smooth grave 1fe0 0313 0300 03c5 0306 0313 0300 eb88
upsilon with macron and acute 1fe1 0301 03c5 0304 0301 eb7a
upsilon with macron and circumflex 1fe1 0342 03c5 0304 0342 eb70
upsilon with macron and grave 1fe1 0300 03c5 0304 0300 eb6f
upsilon with macron and rough 1fe1 0314 03c5 0304 0314 eb7e
upsilon with macron and rough acute 1fe1 0314 0301 03c5 0304 0314 0301 eb80
upsilon with macron and rough circumflex 1fe1 0314 0342 03c5 0304 0314 0342 eb78
upsilon with macron and rough grave 1fe1 0314 0300 03c5 0304 0314 0300 eb75
upsilon with macron and smooth 1fe1 0313 03c5 0304 0313 eb7d
upsilon with macron and smooth acute 1fe1 0313 0301 03c5 0304 0313 0301 eb7f
upsilon with macron and smooth circumflex 1fe1 0313 0342 03c5 0304 0313 0342 eb77
upsilon with macron and smooth grave 1fe1 0313 0300 03c5 0304 0313 0300 eb71
Upsilon with smooth 03a5 0313 e1ac
Upsilon with smooth acute 03a5 0313 0301 e1ae
Upsilon with smooth circumflex 03a5 0313 0342 e1af
Upsilon with smooth grave 03a5 0313 0300 e1ad

By code point:

description decomposed Unicode alternative ( full) decomposition PUA code point adopted
epsilon with breve 03b5 0306 e1a9
omicron with breve 03bf 0306 e1aa
Rho with smooth 03a1 0313 e1ab
Upsilon with smooth 03a5 0313 e1ac
Upsilon with smooth grave 03a5 0313 0300 e1ad
Upsilon with smooth acute 03a5 0313 0301 e1ae
Upsilon with smooth circumflex 03a5 0313 0342 e1af
epsilon with circumflex 03b5 0342 e1b0
epsilon with smooth circumflex 03b5 0313 0342 e1b1
epsilon with rough circumflex 03b5 0314 0342 e1b2
epsilon with macron 03b5 0304 e1b3
epsilon with macron and acute 03b5 0304 0301 e1b4
epsilon with macron and grave 03b5 0304 0300 e1b5
epsilon with macron and smooth 03b5 0304 0313 e1b6
epsilon with macron and rough 03b5 0304 0314 e1b7
epsilon with macron and smooth grave 03b5 0304 0313 0300 e1b8
epsilon with macron and rough grave 03b5 0304 0314 0300 e1b9
epsilon with macron and smooth acute 03b5 0304 0313 0301 e1ba
epsilon with macron rough acute 03b5 0304 0314 0301 e1bb
Epsilon with smooth circumflex 0395 0313 0342 e1bc
Epsilon with rough circumflex 0395 0314 0342 e1bd
Epsilon with macron 0395 0304 e1be
Epsilon with breve 0395 0306 e1bf
omicron with circumflex 03bf 0342 e1c0
omicron with smooth circumflex 03bf 0313 0342 e1c1
omicron with rough circumflex 03bf 0314 0342 e1c2
omicron with macron 03bf 0304 e1c3
omicron with macron and acute 03bf 0304 0301 e1c4
omicron with macron and grave 03bf 0304 0300 e1c5
omicron with macron and smooth 03bf 0304 0313 e1c6
omicron with macron and rough 03bf 0304 0314 e1c7
omicron with macron and smooth grave 03bf 0304 0313 0300 e1c8
omicron with macron and rough grave 03bf 0304 0314 0300 e1c9
omicron with macron and smooth acute 03bf 0304 0313 0301 e1ca
omicron with macron and rough acute 03bf 0304 0314 0301 e1cb
Omicron with smooth circumflex 039f 0313 0342 e1cc
Omicron with rough circumflex 039f 0314 0342 e1cd
Omicron with macron 039f 0304 e1ce
Omicron with breve 039f 0306 e1cf
alpha with macron and grave 1fb1 0300 03b1 0304 0300 eaf0
alpha with macron and circumflex 1fb1 0342 03b1 0304 0342 eaf2
alpha with macron and smooth grave 1fb1 0313 0300 03b1 0304 0313 0300 eaf3
alpha with macron and rough grave 1fb1 0314 0300 03b1 0304 0314 0300 eaf4
alpha with macron and smooth circumflex 1fb1 0313 0342 03b1 0304 0313 0342 eaf5
alpha with macron and rough circumflex 1fb1 0314 0342 03b1 0304 0314 0342 eaf6
alpha with breve and grave 1fb0 0300 03b1 0306 0300 eaf8
alpha with breve and smooth 1fb0 0313 03b1 0306 0313 eaf9
alpha with breve and smooth grave 1fb0 0313 0300 03b1 0306 0313 0300 eafa
alpha with breve and rough acute 1fb0 0314 0301 03b1 0306 0314 0301 eafb
alpha with breve and rough grave 1fb0 0314 0300 03b1 0306 0314 0300 eafc
alpha with macron and acute 1fb1 0301 03b1 0304 0301 eb00
alpha with macron and smooth 1fb1 0313 03b1 0304 0313 eb04
alpha with macron and rough 1fb1 0314 03b1 0304 0314 eb05
alpha with macron and smooth acute 1fb1 0313 0301 03b1 0304 0313 0301 eb07
alpha with macron and rough acute 1fb1 0314 0301 03b1 0304 0314 0301 eb09
alpha with breve and acute 1fb0 0301 03b1 0306 0301 eb0a
alpha with breve and rough 1fb0 0314 03b1 0306 0314 eb0b
alpha with breve and smooth acute 1fb0 0313 0301 03b1 0306 0313 0301 eb0c
epsilon with macron and smooth circumflex 03b5 0304 0313 0342 eb20
epsilon with macron and rough circumflex 03b5 0304 0314 0342 eb21
epsilon with macron and circumflex 03b5 0304 0342 eb27
iota with macron and circumflex 1fd1 0342 03b9 0304 0342 eb36
iota with macron and grave 1fd1 0300 03b9 0304 0300 eb38
iota with macron and acute 1fd1 0301 03b9 0304 0301 eb39
iota with macron and smooth 1fd1 0313 03b9 0304 0313 eb3c
iota with macron and smooth acute 1fd1 0313 0301 03b9 0304 0313 0301 eb3d
iota with macron and rough 1fd1 0314 03b9 0304 0314 eb3e
iota with macron and rough acute 1fd1 0314 0301 03b9 0304 0314 0301 eb3f
iota with breve and acute 1fd0 0301 03b9 0306 0301 eb40
iota with breve and smooth 1fd0 0313 03b9 0306 0313 eb41
iota with breve and smooth acute 1fd0 0313 0301 03b9 0306 0313 0301 eb42
iota with breve and rough 1fd0 0314 03b9 0306 0314 eb43
iota with breve and grave 1fd0 0300 03b9 0306 0300 eb44
iota with breve and smooth grave 1fd0 0313 0300 03b9 0306 0313 0300 eb45
iota with breve and rough acute 1fd0 0314 0301 03b9 0306 0314 0301 eb47
iota with breve and rough grave 1fd0 0314 0300 03b9 0306 0314 0300 eb48
iota with macron and smooth grave 1fd1 0313 0300 03b9 0304 0313 0300 eb54
iota with macron and rough grave 1fd1 0314 0300 03b9 0304 0314 0300 eb55
iota with macron and smooth circumflex 1fd1 0313 0342 03b9 0304 0313 0342 eb57
iota with macron and rough circumflex 1fd1 0314 0342 03b9 0304 0314 0342 eb58
omicron with macron and circumflex 03bf 0304 0342 eb5a
omicron with macron and smooth circumflex 03bf 0304 0313 0342 eb5b
omicron with macron and rough circumflex 03bf 0304 0314 0342 eb5c
upsilon with macron and grave 1fe1 0300 03c5 0304 0300 eb6f
upsilon with macron and circumflex 1fe1 0342 03c5 0304 0342 eb70
upsilon with macron and smooth grave 1fe1 0313 0300 03c5 0304 0313 0300 eb71
upsilon with macron and rough grave 1fe1 0314 0300 03c5 0304 0314 0300 eb75
upsilon with macron and smooth circumflex 1fe1 0313 0342 03c5 0304 0313 0342 eb77
upsilon with macron and rough circumflex 1fe1 0314 0342 03c5 0304 0314 0342 eb78
upsilon with macron and acute 1fe1 0301 03c5 0304 0301 eb7a
upsilon with macron and smooth 1fe1 0313 03c5 0304 0313 eb7d
upsilon with macron and rough 1fe1 0314 03c5 0304 0314 eb7e
upsilon with macron and smooth acute 1fe1 0313 0301 03c5 0304 0313 0301 eb7f
upsilon with macron and rough acute 1fe1 0314 0301 03c5 0304 0314 0301 eb80
upsilon with breve and acute 1fe0 0301 03c5 0306 0301 eb81
upsilon with breve and rough 1fe0 0314 03c5 0306 0314 eb82
upsilon with breve and grave 1fe0 0300 03c5 0306 0300 eb83
upsilon with breve and smooth 1fe0 0313 03c5 0306 0313 eb84
upsilon with breve and smooth acute 1fe0 0313 0301 03c5 0306 0313 0301 eb85
upsilon with breve and smooth grave 1fe0 0313 0300 03c5 0306 0313 0300 eb88
upsilon with breve and rough acute 1fe0 0314 0301 03c5 0306 0314 0301 eb89
upsilon with breve and rough grave 1fe0 0314 0300 03c5 0306 0314 0300 eb8a

Other PUA code points (some of which are no longer needed, since the character has now been accepted in the Unicode standard):

description Unicode code point, if now accepted PUA code point
Denarius 2733 e198
Drachmai 1017b e197
etos 10179 e199
h (for use in Greek text) e19b
iota reversed with tilde below e1a1
Iota reversed with breve below e1a0
Kai symbol 03cf e1a6
Sigma double (capital archaic sampi) 0372 e19c
upsilon reversed with tilde below e1a3
Upsilon revrse with breve below e1a2
Yot e1a5

Additional PUA code points used in New Athena Unicode for the alternative forms of capital vowels with iota and for some metrical symbols, and to support transliteration of Demotic Egyptian (these have not be agreed upon by the consortium that recognizes the code points in the previous lists):

description PUA code point
capital alpha with reduced iota EC00
capital alpha with reduced iota and smooth EC01
capital alpha with reduced iota and rough EC02
capital alpha with reduced iota and smooth and acute EC03
capital alpha with reduced iota and rough and acute EC04
capital alpha with reduced iota and smooth and grave EC05
capital alpha with reduced iota and rough and grave EC06
capital alpha with reduced iota and smooth and circumflex EC07
capital alpha with reduced iota and rough and circumflex EC08
capital eta with reduced iota EC09
capital eta with reduced iota and smooth EC0A
capital eta with reduced iota and rough EC0B
capital eta with reduced iota and smooth and acute EC0C
capital eta with reduced iota and rough and acute EC0D
capital eta with reduced iota and smooth and grave EC0E
capital eta with reduced iota and rough and grave EC0F
capital eta with reduced iota and smooth and circumflex EC10
capital eta with reduced iota and rough and circumflex EC11
capital omega with reduced iota EC12
capital omega with reduced iota and smooth EC13
capital omega with reduced iota and rough EC14
capital omega with reduced iota and smooth and acute EC15
capital omega with reduced iota and rough and acute EC16
capital omega with reduced iota and smooth and grave EC17
capital omega with reduced iota and rough and grave EC18
capital omega with reduced iota and smooth and circumflex EC19
capital omega with reduced iota and rough and circumflex EC1A
capital alpha with subscript EC20
capital alpha with subscript and smooth EC21
capital alpha with subscript and rough EC22
capital alpha with subscript and smooth and acute EC23
capital alpha with subscript and rough and acute EC24
capital alpha with subscript and smooth and grave EC25
capital alpha with subscript and rough and grave EC26
capital alpha with subscript and smooth and circumflex EC27
capital alpha with subscript and rough and circumflex EC28
capital eta with subscript EC29
capital eta with subscript and smooth EC2A
capital eta with subscript and rough EC2B
capital eta with subscript and smooth and acute EC2C
capital eta with subscript and rough and acute EC2D
capital eta with subscript and smooth and grave EC2E
capital eta with subscript and rough and grave EC2F
capital eta with subscript and smooth and circumflex EC30
capital eta with subscript and rough and circumflex EC31
capital omega with subscript EC32
capital omega with subscript and smooth EC33
capital omega with subscript and rough EC34
capital omega with subscript and smooth and acute EC35
capital omega with subscript and rough and acute EC36
capital omega with subscript and smooth and grave EC37
capital omega with subscript and rough and grave EC38
capital omega with subscript and smooth and circumflex EC39
capital omega with subscript and rough and circumflex EC3A
end of stanza mark = three vertical bars EC3B (U+007C, U+007C, U+007C)
contracted biceps = two dots over macron EC3C (U+2012, U+0308)
catalexis caret EC3D (U+0020, U+0020, U+032D
aeolic basis = two small circles EC3E (U+25EF, U+25EF)
alternate capital omega with downward opening EC3F
capital H with line below for demotic egyptian EC40
small c with caron and dot below for demotic egyptian EC41
small Egyptological alef = new U+A723 EC42 (=U+A723)
small Egyptological ain = new U+A725 EC43 (=U+A725)
small i with inverted breve below for demotic eqyptian EC44
small u with inverted breve below for demotic egyptian EC45
small Egyptological yod EC46
small h with circumflex below EC47
capital h with circumflex below EC48
capital Egyptological yod EC49
Coptic small letter ua with horizontal through it EC4A
Coptic small letter iauda with diaeresis EC4F
Coptic small letter ua with diaeresis EC50
alternative glyph for papyrological 4 chalkoi EC51
alternative glyph for drachme EC52
alternative glyph for etos EC53
another alternative glyph for etos EC54
medieval cursive double tau EC55
alternative medieval form of tau EC56
another alternative medieval form of tau EC57
another alternative medieval form of tau EC58
another alternative medieval form of tau EC59
alternative medieval form of gamma EC5A
suspended ου ligature EC5B
alternative medieval form of beta EC5C
another alternative medieval form of beta EC5D
marginal quotation mark EC5E
alternative form of lowercase numerical koppa (cf. 03DF) EC5F
reference mark formed of two crosses vertically stacked EC60
cursive stigma reference mark EC61
breathing style descriptor (half eta form) EC62
calendrical sign (selene) EC63
calendrical sign (sun), alternative to 2609 EC64
alternative form of fraction 1/2, cf. 10176 EC65
breathing style descriptor (quarter eta form) EC66
open-face uncial kappa EC67
abbreviation for σημείωσαι/σημειωτέον EC68
abbreviation for ὥρα EC69
a ligatured form of τό EC6A
another ligatured form of τό EC6B
page corner symbol, upper left EC6C
page corner symbol, upper right EC6D
page corner symbol, lower left EC6E
page corner symbol, lower right EC6F
three-dot punctuation (mirror of 2056) EC70
abbreviation for γράφεται/γράφε EC71
0xEC72reversed lowercase n
0xEC73epsilon breve acute
0xEC74epsilon breve grave
0xEC75epsilon breve smooth
0xEC76epsilon breve rough
0xEC77epsilon breve smooth grave
0xEC78epsilon breve rough grave
0xEC79epsilon breve smooth acute
0xEC7Aepsilon breve rough acute
0xEC7Bomicron breve acute
0xEC7Comicron breve grave
0xEC7Domicron breve smooth
0xEC7Eomicron breve rough
0xEC7Fomicron breve smooth grave
0xEC80omicron breve rough grave
0xEC81omicron breve smooth acute
0xEC82omicron breve rough acute

Additional ligature combinations for unusual combinations needed in manuscript descriptions, including one convention of cryptographic writing:

description decomposed input sequence for OpenType ligature
lambda with smooth03BB 0313
lambda with rough03BB 0314
lambda with smooth acute03BB 0313 0301
lambda with smooth grave03BB 0313 0300
lambda with rough acute03BB 0314 0301
lambda with rough grave03BB 0314 0300
lambda with smooth circumflex03BB 0313 0342
lambda with rough circumflex03BB 0314 0342
sigma with acute03C3 0301
sigma with grave03C3 0300
sigma with circumflex03C3 0342
sigma with smooth03C3 0313
sigma with rough03C3 0314
sigma with smooth acute03C3 0313 0301
sigma with smooth grave03C3 0313 0300
sigma with rough acute03C3 0314 0301
sigma with rough grave03C3 0314 0300
sigma with smooth circumflex03C3 0313 0342
sigma with rough circumflex03C3 0314 0342
chi with acute03C7 0301
chi with grave03C7 0300
chi with circumflex03C7 0342
chi with smooth03C7 0313
chi with rough03C7 0314
chi with smooth acute03C7 0313 0301
chi with smooth grave03C7 0313 0300
chi with rough acute03C7 0314 0301
chi with rough grave03C7 0314 0300
chi with smooth circumflex03C7 0313 0342
chi with rough circumflex03C7 0314 0342
sampi with smooth03E1 0313
sampi with rough03E1 0314
koppa dieresis03D9 0308
koppa dieresis with acute03D9 0308 0301
koppa dieresis with grave03D9 0308 0300
koppa dieresis with circumflex03D9 0308 0342
koppa dieresis with smooth03D9 0308 0313
koppa dieresis with rough03D9 0308 0314
koppa dieresis with smooth acute03D9 0308 0313 0301
koppa dieresis with smooth grave03D9 0308 0313 0300
koppa dieresis with rough acute03D9 0308 0314 0301
koppa dieresis with rough grave03D9 0308 0314 0300
koppa dieresis with smooth circumflex03D9 0308 0313 0342
koppa dieresis with rough circumflex03D9 0308 0314 0342
chi dieresis03C7 0308
chi dieresis with acute03C7 0308 0301
chi dieresis with grave03C7 0308 0300
chi dieresis with circumflex03C7 0308 0342
chi dieresis with smooth03C7 0308 0313
chi dieresis with rough03C7 0308 0314
chi dieresis with smooth acute03C7 0308 0313 0301
chi dieresis with smooth grave03C7 0308 0313 0300
chi dieresis with rough acute03C7 0308 0314 0301
chi dieresis with rough grave03C7 0308 0314 0300
chi dieresis with smooth circumflex03C7 0308 0313 0342
chi dieresis with rough circumflex03C7 0308 0314 0342
colon(dicolon) tilde punctuation003A 007E